File Name: mind and nature a necessary unity .zip
Karl Christian Friedrich Krause has bequeathed to us a system of philosophy which is little recognised in contemporary philosophy. God makes humanity, nature, and reason ultimately comprehensible as the essential categories of the divine Essence.
God is thus the single, primary, object of science that is already logically presupposed even before His discovery. Science presupposes theology, and theology is best read as panentheism. Download PDF Nature, Reason, and the Ego in Itself. That the ego as such is intuited as a whole is a necessary condition for one to be able to turn towards the analyses of the ego in itself.
For only if the ego is grasped as a whole, only if one is aware of the material and formal categories that belong to the transcendental constitution of the ego, as a whole, does it make sense to ask about its constitutive parts, the relations amongst them, and to the ego, as a whole: if one did not possess the concept of the ego as a whole, one could not even identify its constitutive parts and their relation to the whole.
The next task of the analytical-ascending part of science, therefore, is to turn to the essentialities that constitute the essence of the ego in itself, and to analyse in which way the constitutive parts of the ego are related amongst themselves, and to the ego as such, that is, to the ego as a whole.
To carry out this task, Krause again operates with the method of transcendental phenomenology and only allows those insights to be read off or deduced from the fundamental intuition of the ego that are immediately certain and therefore express truths which each and every subject, by achieving the fundamental intuition itself, would agree upon.
The reason for the adequacy of this insight is that every ego of necessity will, simply by reflecting on itself, recognize that it addresses itself as consisting of a mind and of a body, irrespectively of what further metaphysical reflection will show concerning the relation between mind and body.
Since further metaphysical knowledge is bracketed in the analytical-ascending part of science, Krause seems to be right in spelling out this insight in the way he does: it is not possible to consider the ego in itself, that is, to consider the constitutive parts of the ego as a whole and how they relate to the ego as a whole, and at the same time to deny that the ego at least possesses the concept of itself as a body and as a mind.
In phenomenological terms: the ego at least appears to itself as having a body and as having a mind. Based on the assumption that the ego in itself consists of mind and body, there are, therefore, at least three different perspectives from which the ego can be further illuminated.
It is immediately certain that the ego, in itself, perceives itself to be constituted, at least in part, by its body. For, although the senses are used in self-observation, the senses, on their own, are not sufficient to constitute knowledge of the body of and by the ego, as the self-same and whole body of the ego.
For I must first interpret the representation of my body in the eye. I must conclude, on the basis of these presuppositions, that this representation is of a limb belonging to one and the same body. The relation of the ego to the lived-body qua its own lived-body would be impossible without the categorial concepts, which enable the ego to determine perceptions mediated through the senses as perceptions of its own body.
In sum, the ego recognizes that, as a whole, it is constituted, at least in part, by its body that, as a self-same and whole body, is subordinated to the same material and formal categories to which also the ego, as a whole, is subordinated. Because, as we have seen, none of the categories stands arbitrarily juxtaposed next to each other, it follows that the ego as a body is a self-same and whole body that is directed upon itself, grasps itself, and possesses unity-of-determination and unity-of-difference.
First, as a mind, considered independent of its body, the ego is, like the body, and the ego as such, a whole and self-same essence that is subordinated to the same material and formal categories that were discovered in the analyses of the ego as such.
The reason is that the moment I recognize that a constitutive part of myself, as a whole, is my being a mind, is the moment in which I recognize that I cannot deny selfhood, wholeness, directedness, or comprehension as determinations of myself as a mind.
Next, as a mind, the ego possesses the faculty of reason and understanding. Understanding, according to Krause, is the faculty by which the ego as a mind can distinguish objects, while, by means of reason, unity is sought in diversity. In so far as one holds, and unites, several individuals against several other individuals, he is describable as reason [ Vernunft , ratio ].
The understanding separates and distinguishes, reason connects and relates. The ego in itself may be described in two respects: as mind and as body.
Both are constitutive parts of the ego as a whole, and both the ego as a mind and the ego as a body, are, like the ego as such, self-same and whole essences that are subordinated to the formal and material categories discovered in the analyses of the transcendental constitution of the ego as a whole. Or is it, roughly, such that mind is the higher essence, body the subordinate essence, such that body is not on the same essential level as mind [?
Krause is aware that depending on whether the mind or the body is construed as dominant, the relation of the ego as such to mind and body alters, in daily life. If the ego as a body is thought of as more important than the ego as a mind, the ego as such runs the risk of neglecting the mind and concentrating only on the care of the body. It is only to be expected that the philosophy of such a culture is also concentrated on the material physicality of our being. For example, humanity will regard the mind as equal with the body.
They will also regard the body as something essential, in itself worthy. They will nurture, care, train, to seek to maintain it in health and beauty. This synthesis of mind and body, according to Krause, is what is meant by the concept of a human being.
But as mind I am not […] my body. But I am indeed the body as ego, in so far as the body […] is essentially united with me as a mind. And, in so far as I am a mind, and at the same time am a body, or to speak more precisely, in so far as I as mind am essentially connected with my body […] I am a human being. Although the ego is aware that, in itself, it is a body, and a mind, and in virtue of the union of body and mind is what is called a human being, the ego, analogous to the analysis of its transcendental constitution as such, is aware that, as a whole, it is not completely exhausted by its parts and their relation with one another.
That is to say, in itself, the ego, as a whole that is related to, and constituted by its parts, is distinguished, as a whole, from what is constitutive of the ego as a whole.
In so far as the ego is a whole that is not reducible to its parts and their relation, the ego can be referred to as the higher unity of its parts, as their principle of unity, and therefore is precisely what unites the differences and unities of its parts into a whole. The ego intuits that it is distinguished as the higher unity of mind, body, and their union.
That the ego, in itself, is a body and a mind, and through the union of body and mind is a human being, does not provide the full analysis of what the ego is, in itself. The reason is that the ego, qua being a body, and qua being a mind, recognizes that it is part of larger realms of being: Qua being a body, the ego is part of nature, and qua being a mind, the ego is part of reason.
That is, according to Krause, further reflection on the ego, in itself, shows that as body, the ego recognizes itself as part of nature, and as a mind, the ego recognizes itself as part of reason, which is to say that the ego possesses a priori concepts of nature and reason. Regarding the ego as a body, Krause argues that although the ego becomes aware of its own body as a self-same and whole body, through the formal and material categories, the ego, at the same time, by reflecting on its concept of his body, also finds itself standing in a particular relation of alienation to its own body.
Krause advances two arguments for this thesis. The first is genetic: although the body is connected with the ego, as its body, it is subject to laws of nature in its genesis and sustained existence. Its generation, its birth, its growth, its decay, its corruption: all these are acts of nature.
Therefore, although the ego recognizes its body as a whole, and as one and the same essence, further reflection on the entailments of the concept of this body shows that the body is, and has to be, part of nature in order to exist. If the body were wholly associated with the ego, then the ego would be able to exercise complete control over all bodily functions. The body, however, can only be controlled to a small extent by the ego, because many body functions are not under voluntary control.
It is therefore not even true that the body as a whole belongs to me as mind. It is only joined to me as a part of nature.
The ego as a whole, and as one and the same being, experiences its body as both its own and as an alien body. In so far as the ego experiences its body as an alien body, it experiences it as part of nature. Any knowledge of an object, mediated by the senses and the transcendental categories, therefore is knowledge of a finite object in nature, but not knowledge of what nature is, as such.
That is to say, the very concept of nature has to be accessible a priori as the concept of that in which finite objects exist and have their being. And, therefore we raise ourselves to the thoroughly trans-sensory thought of nature, that is, to the physical world which, in a certain sense, is external to us all.
As one, in space, motion, and infinite force, original self-same and whole self-essence [ urganzes Selbwesen ] that is all that is of its kind, in itself, holds within itself the entire heavenly structure, and all the stages of bodily essences, essentialities, and activities, and is primordial and eternal, as such, but temporal in itself. And this intuition of nature […] contains, at the same time, the intuition of the primordial concept of nature, in so far as it is, as a self-same and whole, above all its internal parts, members, and formations.
Without the assumption that nature is this infinite and harmonious space in which individual finite entities exist, we could not even think of the existence of finite objects presented by the senses as being part of nature. We need to understand nature as a whole, in order to understand what it is to be a part of nature.
But I think, rather, precisely that which must first be thought, so that I can also think the thoughts of parts of space. Inasmuch as nature is a harmonious whole that, as a whole, can be distinguished from the finite entities existing as parts in nature, nature itself is a self-same and whole essence that, like the ego as such, is subordinated to the formal and material essentialities that constitute its very essence and being.
In contrast to the body, the ego, as mind, is not a body extended in space and time. But it first makes possible, through the assumptions which lie within it, the a priori concept of a corporeal physical nature, extended in time and space.
That is to say, every concept is finite inasmuch as concepts operate by exclusion, finitude, and that based on the assumption that there are infinitely many concepts, in principle, the complete determination of a concept would have to take into account, due to the organic unity of the realm of reason, the whole infinity of different concepts all at once. That the ego as a mind is part of the realm of reason therefore, amongst other things, means that inasmuch as the ego is a mind it participates in, and has access to the infinite realm of concepts and their relations of inclusion and exclusion.
On the other hand, the realm of reason is also the realm of freedom: it is qua participating in the realm of reason that the ego is free and is, as a freely acting human being, through nature united with each and every being that participates in reason. Because the ego recognizes that as a body it is part of nature and as a mind it is part of reason, and because the ego recognizes that it is a human being in so far as it is a union of body and mind, the ego becomes aware of the fact that in so far as it is a human being, it participates in the union of nature and reason, both of which are of equal importance for the constitution of the ego as a whole.
This, though, entails that although nature and reason can be distinguished from one another, the distinction between nature and reason is not an absolute distinction. Instead, it is a relative distinction that, in humanity, is yet already abolished in and through the union of nature and reason. For, nature is in reason and reason in nature. Reason, therefore, in its infinity and peculiarity, must be nature, only a nature in its peculiar form […] with the character of reason […].
This nature in reason opens itself up as a world of imagination [ Phantasie ]. Nature, on the other hand, must be reason. In sum, although nature and reason can be distinguished in so far as emphasis is put on the fact that nature is the organic whole of bodily essences and reason is the organic whole of spiritual and freely acting essences, there is a fundamental union between nature and reason, which today we would express as the fact that nature is a reasonable whole that is open to adequate conceptualization, this presupposition being itself a necessary condition for the possibility of science, a principal task of which precisely consist in the conceptualization of nature in a reasonable way.
The ego, in itself, is both a mind, a body, the union of nature and reason, and the higher unity of the unity and difference between nature and reason. Unfortunately, the question of how this synthesis of nature and reason is achieved, cannot be answered at this stage in the analytical-ascending part of science, because the ego is not yet aware of the existence of a higher ground in virtue of which nature and reason are both distinct and united. We distinguish them, assert that spirit is not nature, and vice versa.
This compels us to ask for a ground of the three objects mentioned, for the higher and the highest One, in which these three are, and are comprehended. What can be said though, is that there is nothing in the world which may not to be subsumed under one of the various headings: nature, reason, and humanity.
The reason is that the ego cannot think of anything existing in the world that is not either subordinated to reason, to nature, or to humanity. Considered systematically, of course, nature and reason are the only constituents of the world, because humanity is itself a synthesis of nature and reason.
After the analysis of the ego as such, Krause turns to the analysis of the ego in itself. The ego goes beyond the body to nature, because the body is indeed part of nature as it is part of myself as human being. The ego goes beyond the mind to reason, because to be mind means to participate in reason.
The diagram constructed by Krause may, again, be of help in understanding the structure behind the fundamental intuition of the constitution of the ego in itself:. Would you like to be regularly informed by e-mail about our new publications in your fields of interest?
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By Gregory Bateson. New York: E. Dutton, This book is the capstone to the philosophical edifice which Gregory Bateson has been building for several decades. Bateson means to be subversive, and to do his part toward the ultimate healing which has already been suggested by systems theory, cybernetics, ecology, and humanistic psychology, not to mention the works of John Muir, Mary Austin, Frank Waters, Gary Snyder, Joseph Wood Krutch, and many other western American writers. His theory of what is wrong and his hope for a truly transformative, holistic philosophy, are very much in the main line of western regional writing and will seem familiar to students of the field.
MIND AND NATURE. A Necessary Unity. Gregory Bateson. CONTENTS. Acknowledgments. I Introduction. II Every Schoolboy Knows III Multiple Versions of.
Karl Christian Friedrich Krause has bequeathed to us a system of philosophy which is little recognised in contemporary philosophy. God makes humanity, nature, and reason ultimately comprehensible as the essential categories of the divine Essence. God is thus the single, primary, object of science that is already logically presupposed even before His discovery. Science presupposes theology, and theology is best read as panentheism. Download PDF
We acknowledge the generosity of M. Bateson for the permission to publish in this site two chapters of Mind and Nature by G. The work and thought leading to this book have spread over many years, and my debts go back to include all that were acknowledged in the preface to my previous book, Steps to an Ecology of Mind. But I have tried to write to be understandable to those who have not read Steps and therefore shall acknowledge here only debts contracted since Steps was published. Even so, recent favors have been many.
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Abominable Outcomes A strong argument can be mounted, on the basis of the available evidence, that besides offering an increasing amount of employment, mental health services are not doing a great deal of good. Save to Library. Create Alert.
As he returned from Europe in , Emerson had already begun to think about the book that would eventually be published under the title Nature. In writing Nature , Emerson drew upon material from his journals, sermons, and lectures. A new edition also published by Munroe, with Emerson paying the printing costs, his usual arrangement with Munroe appeared in December of This second edition was printed from the plates of the collection Nature; Addresses, and Lectures , published by Munroe in September The second edition of this collection was published in Boston in by Phillips, Sampson, under the title Miscellanies; Embracing Nature, Addresses, and Lectures. Nature was published in London in in Nature, An Essay. And Lectures on the Times , by H.
Она попыталась вспомнить, что это. Сбои техники в Третьем узле были такой редкостью, что номера ошибок в ее памяти не задерживалось. Сьюзан пролистала справочник и нашла нужный список. 19: ОШИБКА В СИСТЕМНОМ РАЗДЕЛЕ 20: СКАЧОК НАПРЯЖЕНИЯ 21: СБОЙ СИСТЕМЫ ХРАНЕНИЯ ДАННЫХ Наконец она дошла до пункта 22 и, замерев, долго всматривалась в написанное. Потом, озадаченная, снова взглянула на монитор. КОД ОШИБКИ 22 Сьюзан нахмурилась и снова посмотрела в справочник. То, что она увидела, казалось лишенным всякого смысла.
Решив, что никакой опасности нет, Стратмор запустил файл, минуя фильтры программы Сквозь строй. Сьюзан едва могла говорить. - Никакой Цифровой крепости не существует, - еле слышно пробормотала она под завывание сирены и, обессилев, склонилась над своим компьютером. Танкадо использовал наживку для дурачков… и АНБ ее проглотило. Сверху раздался душераздирающий крик Стратмора.
MIND. AND. NATURE. A Necessary U ni ty. Gregory Bateson. E. P. DUTTON. o unity of biosphere and humanity which would bind and reassure us all.