File Name: causes and consequences of environmental degradation .zip
Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air , water and soil ; the destruction of ecosystems ; habitat destruction ; the extinction of wildlife ; and pollution.
Worldwide the greatest effects on the health of individuals and populations results from environmental degradation and social injustice, operating in consort. This paper describes the national and global causes and health consequences of these phenomena. Causes include overpopulation, pollution, deforestation, global warming, unsustainable agricultural and fishing practices, overconsumption, maldistribution of wealth, the rise of the corporation, the Third World debt crisis, and militarization and wars.
The subject of environmental economics is at the forefront of the green debate: the environment can no longer be viewed as an entity separate from the economy. Environmental degradation is of many types and have many consequences. To address this challenge a number of studies have been conducted in both developing and developed countries applying different methods to capture health benefits from improved environmental quality.
Minimizing exposure to environmental risk factors by enhancing air quality and access to improved sources of drinking and bathing water, sanitation and clean energy is found to be associated with significant health benefits and can contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals of environmental sustainability, health and development.
In this paper, I describe the national and global causes and consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice. This paper provides a review of the literature on studies associated with reduced environmental risk and in particular focusing on reduced air pollution, enhanced water quality and climate change mitigation.
The environment affects our health in a variety of ways. The interaction between human health and the environment has been extensively studied and environmental risks have been proven to significantly impact human health, either directly by exposing people to harmful agents, or indirectly, by disrupting life-sustaining ecosystems Remoundou and Koundouri, Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion of natural resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife.
Environmental degradation may be defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction defines environmental degradation as "The reduction of the capacity of the environment to meet social and ecological. The primary cause of environmental degradation is human disturbance. The degree of the environmental impact varies with the cause, the habitat, and the plants and animals that inhabit it.
Humans and their activities are a major source of environmental degradation. Worldwide the greatest effects on the health of individuals and populations result from environmental degradation and social injustice. The two operate inconsort. Martin Donohoe, Causes include overpopulation, air and water pollution, deforestation, global warming, unsustainable agricultural and fishing practices, overconsumption "affluenza" , maldistribution of wealth, the rise of the corporation, the Third World debt crisis, and militarization and wars.
Mining is also a destructive development activity where ecology suffers at the altar of economy. Scientific mining operations accompanied by ecological restoration and regeneration of mined wastelands and judicious use of geological resources, with search for eco-friendly substitutes and alternatives must provide sensational revelation to the impact of mining on human ecosystem Singh and Chauhan, Consequences include increased poverty, overcrowding, famine, weather extremes, species loss, acute and chronic medical illnesses, war and human rights abuses, and an increasingly unstable global situation that portends Malthusian chaos and disaster.
Unfortunately, most of the world's governments, guided by self-interest or self-preservation have adapted too slowly to environmental changes and as such face decreasing internal stability, their health care systems in crisis. The major cause of the environmental pollution are modern urbanization, industrialization, over-population growth, deforestation etc. Environmental pollution refers to the degradation of quality and quantity of natural resources.
Different kinds of the human activities are the main reasons of environmental degradation. These has led to environment changes that have become harmful to all living beings. The smoke emitted by the vehicles and factories increases the amount of poisonous gases in the air.
Mostly, we can see pollution in urban areas where population is increasing rapidly. The waste products, smoke emitted by vehicles and industries are the main causes of pollution. Unplanned urbanization and industrialization have caused water, air and sound pollution. Urbanization and industrialization help to increase pollution of the sources of water. Similarly, the smoke emitted by vehicles and industries like Chlorofluorocarbon, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide and other dust particles pollute air.
The main cause of sound pollution are vehicles, loud speaker, mill etc. This results in the over consumption of natural resources.
Deforestation, over use of pesticides, chemical fertilizer and insecticides, congested housing or unmanaged urbanization, industrialization and production of litters, sewages and garages etc. Pressure of population is awful in town which results air, water and sound population too. Deforestation provokes the wildlife and other organism to the verge of extinction. The forest areas has been cleared for agricultural land, settlement and to collect the useful herbs.
This results in environmental degradation. Global warming is another result of environmental degradation. The temperature of the earth is rising warmer and warmer and due to rise in temperature, the polar icecaps melting and the ice an the colder regions is not thick as it was before. Many species are lost day by day due to various activities of the human beings. The life of the creature will be in danger if environment goes on deteriorating in the same way. So, to live happy and prosperous life we must conserve our environment and should emphasize on Environmental Degradation and its effects.
Air pollution is unfortunately the common causes of environmental degradation. Pollution introduces contaminants into the environment that can maim or even kill plant and animal species. Industry and automobiles are the primary and secondary contributors to air pollution worldwide Kay, Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health and is estimated to scause approximately two million premature deaths worldwide per year .
A reduction of air pollution is expected to reduce the global burden of disease from respiratory infections, heart disease, and lung cancer. As air quality is a major concern for both developed and developing countries, a large number of empirical studies attempting to monetize the benefits to health generated by improved air quality have appeared in the literature worldwide Kyriaki Remoundou and Phoebe Koundouri For every gallon of gasoline manufactured, distributed, and then burned in a vehicle, 25 pounds of carbon dioxide are produced, along with carbon monoxides, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter; these emissions contribute to increased global warming Martin Donohoe, ; Mark, In the United States, there is one car for every two people, in Mexico one for every eight, and in China one for every The global auto population is expected to double in the next years Mark, The average fuel efficiency of US automobiles has decreased over the last few years, due in part to stagnant fuel economy standards, relatively low oil prices, and a growing market for low efficiency pick-ups, mini-vans and sports utility vehicles SUVs, which now outsell cars Martin Donohoe, Current standards are The nation's 3.
In , the Environmental Protection Agency EPA proposed new rules that will require diesel manufacturers to build cleaner engines and the oil industry to produce much cleaner fuel. Under these rules, the minimal mile-per-gallon requirements for SUVs could soon match those of automobiles Kluger, , although the current administration has opposed these changes. The main conclusion from the literature review is that some forms of air pollution, notably inhalable particulate matter and ambient lead, are serious matters for concern in the developing world since they are associated with severe health damages in monetary terms.
Microbe contamination of groundwater due to sewage outfalls and high concentration of nutrients in marine and coastal waters due to agricultural runoff are among the most serious threats. Contact with unsafe drinking or bathing water can impose serious risks both acute and delayed to human health. While tap water is subject to treatment and is required to meet detailed testingand purity standards, it is not always disinfected of diarrhea inducing microorganisms, as illustrated by waterborne disease outbreaks such as that caused by Cryptosporidium in Milwaukie in , which affected over ,people.
Furthermore, fecal coliforms are not prohibited in bottled water Nation Staff, , and water bottled and sold within the same state is not subject to Food and Drug Administration standards Gross, Clean Water Act of states to publish a list of all bodies of water that fail to meet water quality standards, and for the states to set pollution limits and scale back pollution in watersheds until standards are met, compliance is negligible and enforcement weak.
Discharge of untreated sewage is the single most important cause for pollution of surface and ground water in the India. There is a large gap between generation and treatment of domestic waste water in the India. The problem is not only that India lacks sufficient treatment capacity but also that the sewage treatment plants that exist do not operate and are not maintained. Dwight et al. India is recognised as has having major issues with water pollution, predominately due to untreated sewerage.
Rivers such as the Ganges, the Yamuna and Mithi Rivers, all flowing through highly populated areas, thus polluted. Effluents are another by-product of industries which poses threat to the environment, leather and tanning industries, petroleum industries and chemical manufacturing industries create major waste products which are released directly into nearby streams without treatment, creating river pollution and causing harm to aquatic life.
The majority of the government-owned sewage treatment plants remain closed most of the time due to improper design or poor maintenance or lack of reliable electricity supply to operate the plants, together with absentee employees and poor management. According to a World Health Organization study, out of the India's 3, towns and cities, just have partial sewage treatment facilities, and only 8 have full wastewater treatment facilities.
Over Indian cities dump untreated sewage directly into the Ganges River. Additionally, 2. Annual world production of synthetic organic chemicals has grown exponentially since the early 20 century.
The vast majority of artificial chemicals have never been screened for toxicity. Chemical manufacturers are not required to prove safety; instead the legal burden is on the government to prove that a product is dangerous, and testings only done after a substance has been impugned. Certain pesticides that are illegal in the United States are used in other countries on food which is then imported back into the US, exposing Americans to the same health risks faced by individuals in those other countries Satcher, Two million children in the United States are at risk of neurological damage due to elevated lead levels Hattam, Other toxic pollutants include dioxin, a by-product of the manufacturer of defoliants such as "Agent Orange", which is currently produced largely as a byproduct of medical incineration of polyvinyl chloride in intravenous bags and tubing; polychlorinated biphenyls; nitrates and nitrites, mercury and methylmercury; arsenic; trichloroethylene; and vinyl chloride.
Forty-five million US citizens live within 4 miles of one of the Superfund sites Pope, These sites, as well as waste dumps and incinerators, are more common in lower socioeconomic status neighborhoods, such as the "Cancer Belt" between Baton Rouge and New Orleans, Louisiana Mackillop, Zhang-Salomons,. Fertilizers and pesticides used in agriculture in northwest have been found in rivers, lakes and ground water. Flooding during monsoons worsens India's water pollution problem, as it washes and moves all sorts of solid garbage and contaminated soils into its rivers and wetlands.
Half of all tropical forests have been destroyed; by , three-quarters may be lost. Loss of old growth forest has recently particularly affected the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia, known as the "Brazil of the North", an allusion to the devastation wrought by the unsustainable, rapacious logging practices of multinational corporations in the Amazon.
Trash and garbage is a common sight in urban and rural areas of India. It is a major source of pollution. Indian cities alone generate more than million tons of solid waste a year.
Street corners are piled with trash. Public places and sidewalks are despoiled with filth and litter, rivers and canals act as garbage dumps. In part, India's garbage crisis is from rising consumption. India's waste problem also points to a stunning failure of governance. In , India's Supreme Court directed all Indian cities to implement a comprehensive waste-management programme that would include household collection of segregated waste, recycling and composting. These directions have simply been ignored.
No major city runs a comprehensive programme of the kind envisioned by the Supreme Court. Indeed, forget waste segregation and recycling directive of the India's Supreme Court, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development estimates that up to 40 percent of municipal waste in India remains simply uncollected.
Even medical waste, theoretically controlled by stringent rules that require hospitals to operate incinerators, is routinely dumped with regular municipal garbage.
Environmental degradation is the disintegration of the earth or deterioration of the environment through the consumption of assets, for example, air, water and soil; the destruction of environments and the eradication of wildlife. Ecological effect or degradation is created by the consolidation of an effectively substantial and expanding human populace, constantly expanding monetary development or per capita fortune and the application of asset exhausting and polluting technology. Saving our planet, lifting people out of poverty, advancing economic growth… these are one and the same fight. Solutions to one problem must be solutions for all. According to Wikipedia ,. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Environmental degradation is one of the largest threats that are being looked at in the world today.
Он был из другого теста - не их фирменной закваски. Она с самого начала возражала против его кандидатуры, но АНБ посчитало, что другого выхода. Хейл появился в порядке возмещения ущерба. После фиаско Попрыгунчика. Четыре года назад конгресс, стремясь создать новый стандарт шифрования, поручил лучшим математикам страны, иными словами - сотрудникам АНБ, написать новый супералгоритм. Конгресс собирался принять закон, объявляющий этот новый алгоритм национальным стандартом, что должно было решить проблему несовместимости, с которой сталкивались корпорации, использующие разные алгоритмы. Конечно, просить АН Б приложить руку к совершенствованию системы общего пользования - это все равно что предложить приговоренному к смертной казни самому сколотить себе гроб.
Но их там не. - Сью… зан, - заикаясь, начал. - Я… я не понимаю. - Я не могу, - повторила. - Я не могу выйти за тебя замуж. - Она отвернулась. Ее плечи подрагивали.
Бринкерхофф посмотрел на мониторы, занимавшие едва ли не всю стену перед ее столом. На каждом из них красовалась печать АНБ. - Хочешь посмотреть, чем занимаются люди в шифровалке? - спросил он, заметно нервничая. - Вовсе нет, - ответила Мидж.
Вы отлично знаете это. Это Цифровая крепость. - Вот как? - снисходительно произнес Стратмор холодным как лед голосом. - Значит, тебе известно про Цифровую крепость. А я-то думал, что ты будешь это отрицать.
Задействованная ею программа была написана на языке программирования Лимбо, который не был его специальностью. Но ему хватило одного взгляда, чтобы понять: никакая это не диагностика. Хейл мог понять смысл лишь двух слов.
- Скажи первое, что придет в голову. - Ассоциативный ряд? - по-прежнему недоумевал Дэвид. - Стандартная для АНБ процедура. Мне нужно знать, с кем я имею. - Глаза ее смотрели сурово.
Сьюзан остается в живых, Цифровая крепость обретает черный ход. Если не преследовать Хейла, черный ход останется секретом. Но Стратмор понимал, что Хейл не станет долго держать язык за зубами. И все же… секрет Цифровой крепости будет служить Хейлу единственной гарантией, и он, быть может, будет вести себя благоразумно.
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One of the most compelling reasons for studying environmental science and management is the fact that, in the view of many leading authorities, we are now experiencing an environmental crisis; indeed, many authors have claimed that the present environmental crisis is unprecedented in its magnitude, pace and severity Park