File Name: educational psychology multiple choice questions and answers in tamil.zip
The present study was conducted to analyze the level of state anxiety among board exam attending school students in Tamil Nadu, India. A group of students containing 50 boys and 50 girls from 10th and 12th grades participated in the study and their state anxiety before board exams was measured by Westside Test Anxiety Scale.
We found that all board exam going students had increased level of anxiety, which was particularly higher among boys and 12th standard board exam going students. Analysis of various demographic variables showed that students from nuclear families presented higher anxiety levels compared to their desired competitive group. Overall, our results showing the prevalence of state anxiety among board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, support the recent attempt taken by Tamil Nadu government to improve student's academic performance in a healthier manner by appointing psychologists in all government schools.
The educational standards of school children in India are primarily evaluated based on written examinations. Every year, the Indian government conducts two board exams, otherwise referred to as public exams, at the end of the 10th secondary education and 12th higher secondary education grades [ 1 ].
Tamil Nadu is one of the states in India and the Tamil Nadu State Board of School Examination is responsible for the 10th and 12th board examinations within the state. The scores obtained in the 10th board exams are necessary not only to get admission in good higher secondary schools but also to choose the preferred main stream of higher secondary education. Since the number of seats in high quality schools is limited compared to the number of students passing out of the 10th grade, competition to get higher secondary admission is always fierce.
Students clearing up the 12th board exams leave school and enter University education. Although there are several colleges in Tamil Nadu, only few of them are preferred by students [ 2 ], making the admission process very competitive.
Thus, higher education being a prerequisite for successful future, the board exams have been the source of stress and anxiety for several students. In addition to the struggle to meet their own set values, today's students also have to satisfy the demand of their parents and the society, which adds further stress and anxiety. Anxiety is an emotional and behavioral disorder caused by the activation of sympathetic nervous system.
In the domain of education, high level of anxiety is often experienced by students during performance related activities such as, exams [ 3 , 4 ]. In fact, academic examinations and school work are considered to be the most stressful events of adolescent's life [ 5 — 7 ]. Although some level of anxiety among students is essential to achieve success in exams [ 10 ], too much of it can have adverse effect on their performances [ 4 ].
Importantly, in students, high level of anxiety could have an impact on working memory, reasoning abilities, self-esteem, academic performance, and achievement [ 11 , 12 ]. Sometimes, anxiety can have extreme consequences such as tendency to attempt suicide.
Unfortunately, India has one of the highest teenage suicide rates in the world [ 14 , 15 ], and the number of students attempting suicide because of exam fear and pressure is increasing [ 16 , 17 ]. Particularly, Tamil Nadu tops the list not only with highest suicide rates according to the National Crime Record Bureau, [ 18 ], but also with the suicides reported due to exam failure [ 19 ]. It should be noted that suicide is an extreme manifestation of distress, suggesting that, for every reported suicide, it is likely that many mental illnesses go undiagnosed [ 1 ].
Only then, effective interventions and education reforms can be implemented to mentally prepare the students towards better academic performances. Hence, this study seeks to assess the level of state anxiety among 10th and 12th grade board exam going students in Tamil Nadu, India, and the influence of several demographic factors, namely, age, sex, class, mother tongue, religion, parent's education, living area, family type, and parent's income on student anxiety.
The aims and the procedures of the study were explained to the participants and upon their agreement; an informed written consent was signed prior to conducting the study. Convenient sampling technique has been chosen for this study. Sample of school going students during their exam preparation period was recruited from a self-financed school in Tamil Nadu, India.
Male and female students participating in the study were selected based on the following criteria: 1 age group between 15 and 18 years, 2 going to appear for 10th or 12th standard board exams in the same academic year of the survey, and 3 should be able to read and write Tamil local language in Tamil Nadu and English languages.
Sociodemographics of the participants e. The original Westside Test Anxiety Scale instrument with 10 items was modified for the purpose of this study with 25 items, in order to adapt it for Tamil Nadu students. These 25 items enabled to measure different aspects of anxiety impairment, namely, 6 items to assess incapacity, 4 items to detect worry, 5 items to measure others view, 7 items for self-image and 3 items to estimate future security.
In brief, for each item in the test anxiety inventory, the participants were asked to choose one of the 5 alternative responses such as i never, ii slight, iii sometimes, iv usually, and v always, which were rated on a Likert-type scale of 1 to 5 ranging between 1 for never and 5 for always. Thus obtained scores were divided into three categories: 0 to 50 for mild, 51 to 75 for moderate, and 76 to for severe anxiety levels.
Hundred self-administered questionnaires containing 25 questions concerning sociodemographic variables were distributed among the students and all questionnaires were received back. There were 50 male and 50 female students from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic background as indicated by the demographic data Table 1. On the other hand, severe anxiety was not found among girls. So we conclude that male students had significantly higher anxiety than female students.
Since the participants were from two different family types, namely, nuclear and joint families, we also correlated anxiety levels with the family types. Independent sample t -test showed statistically significant difference in anxiety levels between family types t Other demographic variables such as student's age, language, religion, parent's education, and income did not show any statistical significance by having the P above 0.
Based on their percentage of scores the students were categorized into mild, moderate, and severe anxiety level groups with the total of 18, 74, and 8 students, respectively. The overall mean level of anxiety on Westside Test Anxiety Scale was Moreover, the total scores of the five subclasses incapacity, worry, other's view, self-image, and future security were assessed Table 7 and, intriguingly, other's view contributed to high test anxiety, which was followed by future security.
The percentage of each of the 10 original Westside Test Anxiety Scale items selected by the male and female students of 10th and 12th grades was also measured Table 5 and we found that the male students at both grades showed higher mean values than female students Table 6. Further analysis of this date revealed that majority of the 10th standard male students showed high test anxiety in 5 items, moderate or even less anxiety in 4 items, and extremely high anxiety levels in 1 of the 10 items.
In the same grade female students recorded from normal to high test anxiety between the 10 items. Table 6 clearly shows that the situation is still worse among 12th grade male students, as their anxiety levels are always ranging from moderately high to extremely high levels, whereas the anxiety levels of 12th grade female students only swing from normal to high.
It should be noted that none of the items reflected extremely high anxiety levels among girls from both grades. All together these data Table 6 support our previous observation that students from 12th grade, particularly male students experience significantly higher anxiety levels than 10th students Table 2.
Percentage of each of the 10 items selected by male and female students from 10th and 12th grades. Q1: the closer I am to a major exam, the harder it is for me to concentrate on the material, Q2: when I study for my exams, I worry that I will not remember the material on the exam, Q3: during important exams, I think that I am doing awful or that I may fail, Q4: I lose focus on important exams, and I cannot remember material that I knew before the exam, Q5: I finally remember the answer to exam questions after the exam is already over, Q6: I worry so much before a major exam that I am too worn out to do my best on the exams, Q7: I feel out of sorts or not really myself when I take important exams, Q8: I find that my mind sometimes wanders when I am taking important exams, Q9: after an exam, I worry about whether I did well enough, Q I struggle with written assignments, or avoid doing them, because I feel that whatever I do will not be good enough.
I want it to be perfect; 10th grade: 18 male and 23 female students; 12th grade: 32 male and 27 female students; F: female students; M: male students. Exam anxiety is experienced by almost every student before board exams. While mild anxiety is considered to be good for students to keep them task oriented, excess anxiety has been associated with poor performance [ 8 ]. Here, we have evaluated anxiety levels among board exam going adolescent students in Tamil Nadu, India, using a self-report semistructured questionnaire and a standardized psychological test, the Westside Test Anxiety Scale.
Since high test anxiety is inversely correlated with the academic achievements and the factors influencing student performance have always been a quest for educational researchers [ 22 ], we have also correlated various demographic variables with student anxiety levels.
Pressure from school and parents, the lengthy format of Indian state government board exams 3 h , and heavy subject contents are some important factors that contribute to increased anxiety among students [ 1 ]. It is already reported that students from board exam going classes, the 10th and 12th, present significantly higher level of depression, anxiety, and stress compared to the students from 9th and 11th grade [ 23 ].
We further found that the anxiety levels manifested by 12th standard students are higher than students from 10th. This could be because 12th standard is considered as a turning point in a student's life after which they enter into university studies. This observation corroborates with the previous study conducted by Deb et al.
It is rational to think that the test anxiety and the level of exam preparation are related. Here, it is worth noting that, in Tamil Nadu, the percentage of female students successfully completing 10th and 12th standards is much higher than the percentage of male students.
Moreover, girls have often achieved the first five top ranks in Tamil Nadu board exams [ 25 ]. In light of this information, our results showing that male students are exposed to higher level of anxiety than female students are expectable. Cultural practices in India might also underlie the observed higher anxiety levels among boys than girls. Even though the percentage of working women in India is steadily increasing in the recent years, till date men's income is considered as the primary financial support in majority of the families.
Due to this traditional stereotyped view, parents are pressing their male children to take professional courses to improve their future job prospective and familial security, and these factors could be contributing to the observed high test anxiety among boys [ 24 ].
However, female school students from another Indian state, Kerala [ 26 ], and other countries like Greece [ 27 ] and Romania [ 28 ] have recorded more anxiety levels than male students. Similarly, anxiety level was found to be higher among females than male students in universities and colleges [ 8 , 29 ] and these studies have associated the night study habit of female students with the observed high anxiety levels.
As per our study, family type is another parameter that contributes to student anxiety. Among the students surveyed, 53 came from nuclear families and their anxiety levels were comparatively higher than the students coming from joint families. This may be due to the fact that students from nuclear families receive less care and support from parents and relatives, because, nowadays, mostly, both parents are working to meet the highly demanding basic and social needs of the family.
Previous research has associated parenting practices with anxiety [ 30 , 31 ]. Parental rejection and excess control have strong implication on student anxiety [ 30 , 32 ]. So, it is important that parents spend quality time with their children because this ascertains their physical and emotional availability to their children.
An important limitation of this study is the size and homogeneity of the sample population. In order to derive more conclusive observations, it is recommended that this pilot study could be carried out over time, prior and after board exams and with more numbers of students from heterogeneous background such as different schools public and self-financed schools , living area, and family conditions. Moreover, this study could also be extended to understand the effect of anxiety on student performance by treating a group of students to overcome anxiety and then comparing their exam results with the untreated control group over time.
Since this is a study based on self-reports, it should be considered that the level of self-reported anxiety could be biased by the willingness of students to report their real thoughts because of gender, cultural influences, and so forth.
This study has shown that both 10th and 12th standard board exam going students of Tamil Nadu, India, are suffering from exam anxiety, particularly boys. Further, the influence of various demographic factors contributing to the above observed effect is analyzed and discussed. Our data showing the presence of high anxiety and the prevalence of moderate anxiety among adolescents suggests that it is worth providing student guidance and exam preparation tips to overcome test anxiety of 10th and 12th standard board exam going students of India, particularly Tamil Nadu, since it is one of the Indian states with high suicide rate according to the National Crime Record Bureau, [ 18 ] associated with academic failure [ 19 ].
If required, affected students can also be directed to various antianxiety measures such as student counseling, yoga, and medications. Training programs for teachers to understand the mindset of students also enable them to ameliorate student anxiety. In addition to these interventions, education reforms such as simplifying evaluation procedure could also reduce student anxiety [ 34 ].
Our results also evidence that compared to joint families students from nuclear families are prone to suffer from anxiety, suggesting the need for adequate parental care and communication between parents and adolescent children. Together, these practices are expected to help students to tackle academic stressors efficiently without compromising their performance.
Gregory Marslin and Caroline J. The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Read article at publisher's site DOI : BMJ Open , 9 7 :e, 18 Jul To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation.
Psychiatriki , 24 1 , 01 Jan Cited by: 3 articles PMID:
Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding , knowledge , behaviors , skills , values , attitudes, and preferences. The changes induced by learning often last a lifetime, and it is hard to distinguish learned material that seems to be "lost" from that which cannot be retrieved. Human learning starts at birth it might even start before  and continues until death as a consequence of ongoing interactions between people and their environment. The nature and processes involved in learning are studied in many fields, including educational psychology , neuropsychology , experimental psychology , and pedagogy. Research in such fields has led to the identification of various sorts of learning. For example, learning may occur as a result of habituation , or classical conditioning , operant conditioning or as a result of more complex activities such as play , seen only in relatively intelligent animals.
You can download the question papers and answer keys from the links below. Note :- a. Child Development and pedagogy will focus on Educational Psychology of Teaching and Learning, relevant to the age group of 6 — 11 years.
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Educational assessment or educational evaluation  is the systematic process of documenting and using empirical data on the knowledge , skill , attitudes, and beliefs to refine programs and improve student learning. The word 'assessment' came into use in an educational context after the Second World War. As a continuous process, assessment establishes measurable and clear student learning outcomes for learning, provisioning a sufficient amount of learning opportunities to achieve these outcomes, implementing a systematic way of gathering, analyzing and interpreting evidence to determine how well student learning matches expectations, and using the collected information to inform improvement in student learning. The final purpose of assessment practices in education depends on the theoretical framework of the practitioners and researchers, their assumptions and beliefs about the nature of human mind, the origin of knowledge, and the process of learning.
Also, test your knowledge in medical terminology. Read these instructions before taking this practice exam.
When the findings of an experimental research are generalized to target population, the research is said to possess. A Internal validity. B Concurrent validity. C External validity. D Predictive validity. Answer: C. Which of the following do lay the foundation for curriculum?
Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning. The study of learning processes, from both cognitive and behavioral perspectives, allows researchers to understand individual differences in intelligence , cognitive development, affect, motivation , self-regulation, and self-concept, as well as their role in learning. The field of educational psychology relies heavily on quantitative methods, including testing and measurement, to enhance educational activities related to instructional design, classroom management, and assessment, which serve to facilitate learning processes in various educational settings across the lifespan. Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines.
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Comprehensive and up-to-date question bank of mutiple choice objective practice questions and answers on Psychology for Tamil Nadu PSC.