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Fundamental Concepts In Video And Digital Audio Pdf

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A Beginner's Guide to Digital Signal Processing (DSP)

Analog Devices has a broad selection of processors for a wide variety of applications. The following document describes the basic concepts of Digital Signal Processing DSP and also contains a variety of Recommended Reading links for more in-depth information. Digital Signal Processors DSP take real-world signals like voice, audio, video, temperature, pressure, or position that have been digitized and then mathematically manipulate them. A DSP is designed for performing mathematical functions like "add", "subtract", "multiply" and "divide" very quickly. Signals need to be processed so that the information that they contain can be displayed, analyzed, or converted to another type of signal that may be of use.

Chapter 5 Fundamental Concepts in Video

JavaScript seems to be disabled in your browser. For the best experience on our site, be sure to turn on Javascript in your browser. A Plus account is required to perform this action. Get valuable resources straight to your inbox - sent out once per month. A signal is an electromagnetic or electrical current that carries data from one system or network to another. In electronics, a signal is often a time-varying voltage that is also an electromagnetic wave carrying information, though it can take on other forms, such as current. There are two main types of signals used in electronics: analog and digital signals.

Fundamentals of Digital Audio

Each color channel is sent as a separate video signal. Component video, however, requires more bandwidth and good synchronization of the three components. The audio and sync signals are additions to this one signal.

Digital audio is a representation of sound recorded in, or converted into, digital form. In digital audio, the sound wave of the audio signal is typically encoded as numerical samples in a continuous sequence. For example, in CD audio , samples are taken 44, times per second , each with bit sample depth.

Pulse-code modulation PCM is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form of digital audio in computers, compact discs , digital telephony and other digital audio applications. In a PCM stream , the amplitude of the analog signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, and each sample is quantized to the nearest value within a range of digital steps.

Analog Signals vs. Digital Signals

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There are many opinions on the relative merits of analogue and digital audio, often muddled by misconceptions and myth. This article presents some objective technical information and suggests some ways of making an equitable comparison and evaluation. Analogue audio is so called because the "shape" or pattern of an electrical or magnetic pressure audio signal is analogous to looks like the original pattern of changing air pressure.

Types of video signals Video signals can be organized in three different ways: Component video, Composite video, and S-video. Component Video Higher-end video systems, such as for studios, make use of three separate video signals for the red, green, and blue image planes. This is referred to as component video. This kind of system has three wires and connectors connecting the camera or other devices to a TV or monitor. Color signals are not restricted to always being RGB separations. Component Video Component video gives the best color reproduction, since there is no "crosstalk" between the three different channels, unlike composite video or S-video.


Analog Video. Digital Video. 1 Fundamentals of Multimedia, Chapter 5 component-video cables do not carry audio and are often paired with audio.


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A large portion of sound processing is now done by digital devices and software — mixers, dynamics processors, equalizers, and a whole host of tools that previously existed only as analog hardware. This is not to say, however, that in all stages — from capturing to playing — sound is now treated digitally. As it is captured, processed, and played back, an audio signal can be transformed numerous times from analog-to-digital or digital-to-analog. A typical scenario for live sound reinforcement is pictured in Figure 5. In this setup, a microphone — an analog device — detects continuously changing air pressure, records this as analog voltage, and sends the information down a wire to a digital mixing console.

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