File Name: different types of libraries and their functions .zip
Library and Information Services within the Organisation It is quite possible for some managers to be unaware of the extent or even the existence of a library or information service within their organisation. This has become evident more than once at the beginning of both MBA and management development programmes where participants from the same organisation have been discussing access to information with the tutor.
The word "library" was originally drawn from the Latin term liber , which means book. Historically, the libraries of the world have been closely identified with the books that came to fill their respective shelves.
As recent as the s, it would have been possible to define the nature and future of libraries in terms quite similar to those used in the description of libraries in the fifteenth, the eighteenth, and the mid-twentieth centuries.
For it is apparent to even the most casual of students that the character of libraries has remained remarkably stable throughout some four millennia. Across those four thousand years, librarians constructed libraries large and small that were designed to effectively collect, organize, preserve, and make accessible the graphic records of society.
In practical terms, this meant that librarians, the managers of these ever-growing libraries, collected large numbers of books and periodicals, arranged them for relatively easy use, and made these collections accessible to at least part of the community if not the whole community.
This broad definition of the nature and function of libraries served quite nicely until recently. What shattered this timeless consistency, of course, was the emergence of information technology IT and the onset of the "information era. Authors and publishers are increasingly recognizing IT as the new "core" or "defining" technology of the information era. It is apparent that knowledge production is being rapidly shifted to this new medium in an attempt by authors and publishers to amplify intellectual capacity through the enlightened adoption of a new medium that promises to enhance productivity, while concomitantly lowering the costs of knowledge production.
It is also clear that librarians are being asked to devote ever-larger proportions of their limited resources to the provision of digital information services, and are being required to devote ever-smaller proportions of their budgets to the traditional print-on-paper materials.
The dramatic and accelerating development of the digital communication system and its rapid adoption by large segments of society has forced a wide-ranging revision of the notion of "library" and a reconsideration of the role of the librarian within the context of the now-dominant information economy.
Initially, this development was viewed by library interests in much the same contradictory fashion as it was by society at large. For some, the idea of using IT to eliminate the print-on-paper system was a positive and exciting new development, while for others it promised an intensely unappealing future.
Many librarians viewed the emergence of the information revolution as the long-sought opportunity to transcend the limitations imposed on libraries by the print-on-paper system, while to others the much celebrated "death of the book" heralded little more than cultural decline. As a result, the last decade of the twentieth century was marked by heated and highly polemical arguments about the nature and extent of the information revolution and its implications for the future of libraries.
While the digital revolution has forced an intensifying debate about the future of libraries, much, nevertheless, remains the same. For example, for several centuries the principal types of libraries have remained unchanged. What differentiates these library types is the nature of their clienteles; and thus governmental, public, academic, school, and special libraries are found, serving information-seeking patrons throughout the world.
The first of these types to emerge in time was the library serving government. From the beginnings of centralized civilizations some five thousand years ago, it was necessary for governments to collect and organize for efficient use, large and eventually huge amounts of information. Then as now, some of the largest libraries in any country are government libraries serving special clienteles of civil servants, legislators, or members of the judicial and executive branches of the government, and are supported with public resources.
For example, in Washington, D. The same could be said for each of the most sophisticated world capitals such as Moscow, Paris, London, and Berlin. The government library category would also include thousands of libraries serving state, provincial, and municipal governments.
Another large and extremely diverse group of libraries can be categorized as special libraries that serve a wide variety of business enterprises. In any developed nation, thousands of special libraries serving companies large and small offer sophisticated information services to the employees of their respective companies.
These libraries are funded with corporate resources and thus consider their collections and services to be proprietary and accessible only to those who work for the company. Special libraries offer a wide range of services to company employees but focus on two: preserving and organizing vital records relating to the operation of the company, and providing a resource from which the research staff of the company can mine ideas for new products and services.
Equally significant are the public libraries of the world; that is, those libraries established as public trusts, administered with public funds, and open to every element of the citizenry, from children to adults. Free and readily accessible to local inhabitants, these libraries constitute the very cornerstone of information access for citizens, and virtually every community in the developed countries, from Great Britain to Sweden to the United States , proudly boasts the existence of significant numbers of public libraries that are open to all of their citizens.
While these libraries offer many services, the emphasis on recreational or leisure reading is a unique characteristic of public library service.
Academic libraries are those libraries that serve the students and faculty of the colleges and universities of the world. The collections of these academic libraries can range from a few thousand well-chosen volumes in the library of a small community college to the approximate ten million volumes found in the complex system of libraries serving Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Unlike their public library counterparts, the academic library is little concerned with recreational or leisure reading and is devoted almost exclusively to the collection, preservation, and preparation for use of scholarly research materials that may never be widely used but are viewed as having research significance.
School libraries complete our categorization of library types. The school library is devoted to the support of the educational programs of elementary and secondary schools in countries throughout the world.
Heavily oriented toward didactic material viewed as useful by schoolteachers, and smaller than academic libraries, the school library is an integral part of the education of children. Perhaps it would be appropriate to end this section on contemporary libraries by noting the great variations in the number and nature of libraries that exist from country to country and continent to continent. The most extensive system is that found in the United States , which boasts some 8, public libraries, over 3, academic libraries, and literally tens of thousands of government, school, and special libraries.
This massive library system is managed by some , professional librarians. Most of the Western European countries also have large and well-supported systems, but Eastern Europe , Africa, and most of Asia lag far behind. Thus, it should be no surprise to find that American and Western European libraries have also taken the lead in deploying information technologies in the service of their diverse clienteles. While the information revolution has placed enormous pressure on libraries as they try to find their way across this dramatic technological divide, librarians continue to carry out a series of basic functions in the service of their overarching goal of making information readily available to their clienteles.
Perhaps first and foremost in the functions carried out by libraries is the never-ending collection of recorded information deemed of value to the users of libraries. Hundreds of thousands of librarians have devoted millions of hours to the assembly of the tens of thousands of library collections found throughout the world.
Such collection development requires special awareness of the nature of knowledge production and the nature and extent of user needs, and remains one of the most important functions of the librarian. The glorious fruits of the labors of those responsible for the collection development function over the years can be seen in the magnificent book collections to be found in the great national libraries of the world, such as the Library of Congress , with nearly twenty million volumes, and the national libraries of England, France, Germany, and Russia, with nearly as many volumes.
Such collections, painstakingly assembled, represent a virtually complete memory of the cultural history of their respective nations, and as such remain invaluable.
These print-on-paper resources are, of course, now being joined by massive amounts of digital information stored in the computers of the libraries.
Once such large and valuable collections were assembled in countless libraries across the world, it next fell to the library profession to preserve those collections across time. Thus, librarians have pioneered techniques for restoring old books to usable states, and are leaders in the project to ensure that all future books will be printed on materials designed to last for hundreds of years.
Librarians have also been in the forefront of the discussion of the most effective ways to collect, organize, store, and preserve digital communications.
Another enormously costly aspect of the effort to preserve library collections has been the construction of library buildings specially designed to conserve the priceless contents of the libraries of the world. These libraries have become ever more expensive, and, depending on the size of the collection, can run to hundreds of millions of dollars to build.
Many people hope this huge cost can be eliminated in the future as digital communication comes to replace traditional books and periodicals in the knowledge production system. Then, a computer might well become the library, but it must be noted that it would be many years before the accumulated knowledge of the world, stored in millions of books, periodicals, and manuscripts, could be translated onto the new digital medium. Thus, it appears that librarians will be faced with the daunting task of managing yet one more medium in the future.
Large collections of books are virtually unusable without careful attention to organization for ready access. As a result, the cataloging and classification of library materials remains a central function of the libraries of the world. Using various classification schemes such as the Library of Congress Classification scheme or the Dewey Decimal Classification scheme, librarians have prepared detailed catalogs that act as efficient guides to the contents of their ever-larger collections.
Providing author, title, and subject access to library collections, these catalogs remain essential to the proper utilization of any library. Librarians have also been working to develop search engines that will facilitate searching the multitude of databases available to library patrons via the Internet. Finally, libraries must be interpreted for effective use. This library function is implemented by librarians who are prepared to answer user requests for specific information related to research projects and classwork.
Librarians also prepare a wide variety of reference and bibliographic tools designed to provide library patrons with guidance in the use of specific elements of the collections of a library, such as periodical holdings, book reviews, or biographies of prominent individuals. Librarians are particularly committed to providing extensive formal and informal instruction to users who are seeking guidance in navigating their way through complex library collections and gaining what librarians refer to as "information literacy.
Thus, while the types and the functions of libraries have remained much the same as they have been for several millennia, it is essential to note that the revolutionary spread of integrated digital communication systems has dramatically complicated and influenced the way in which libraries function in modern society.
Perhaps an initial glance at several of the largest national libraries of the world—the Library of Congress and the Bibliotheque de France—will make this point clear.
The Library of Congress, located in Washington, D. It is charged with a multitude of roles, including providing extensive reference and research services to the U.
Congress, serving as the largest scholarly research library in the world, and offering a widely praised books-for-the-blind program. Even at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the Library of Congress receives a book every five seconds and has a massive number of unprocessed items waiting to be cataloged.
At the same time, the Library of Congress has taken a leadership role in the deployment of IT in libraries. Perhaps the most dramatic venture is the American Memory Project, which is designed ultimately to translate a vast amount of the collection of the library into a digital format that will be accessible via the Internet from all over the world. In attempting to transfer such huge amounts of printed material to digital formats, the Library of Congress has been forced to deploy the most sophisticated and expensive IT available today, and most experts estimate that it will still cost millions of dollars and take decades for the American Memory Project to encompass any significant portion of the vast holdings of the Library of Congress.
The tremendous controversy surrounding the architectural design of the Bibliotheque de France illustrates the problems associated with the construction of library buildings in the information era.
When the plans were first presented to the French public in , there was a huge public outcry because it appeared that the Bibliotheque de France had been designed by architects who seemed to think that the book was "dead" in the digital era. Thus, very little provision was made for the preservation and use of books and periodicals in the new French national library. Many critics railed against the design, suggesting that it threatened the "collective memory" of the French people as represented by the millions of books in the library.
The architects were urged to plan for the deployment of the latest technology for reproducing and storing information without gambling on the survival of the traditional book collection that represents the "collective memory" of the nation. The outcry in the early s was so great that the French architects were forced to return to the drawing board and develop a design for a building that would be more friendly to the print-on-paper materials in the collection.
College and university libraries throughout the world should face a quite similar if less extensive set of problems as they enter the information era. Ever-larger amounts of the material they acquire is being produced in digital formats, and college and university students are especially sophisticated users of the new IT and are increasingly insistent that coursework and course readings be accessible via the Internet.
Such demands have forced university administrators, faculty, and academic librarians to invest substantial amounts of money in IT and e-books and e-journals. At the same time, librarians must constantly attempt to stay abreast of the rapidly changing information environment so that they can adequately interpret the emerging "electronic library" for students and faculty.
Indeed, it appears that students and their parents are pushing the IT revolution at all levels of education as they demand ever-wider access to a growing array of IT. Students throughout the world are increasingly aware of the burgeoning information economy and the kinds of job opportunities available in that sector. Thus, their demands for ready access to e-mail, Internet services, online coursework, and digital reading materials and research resources are at least in part intensely pragmatic as they rush to qualify for the new employment opportunities in the information economy.
Virtually all libraries have been significantly influenced by the emergence of the new IT and the widespread development of the Internet. For instance, a vast majority of the libraries in the United States, and many more libraries throughout the world, have eliminated the old library card catalog and replaced it with an Online Public Access Catalog OPAC. Almost as many libraries now provide Internet access to library patrons via dozens of computer terminals available to the general public.
Far fewer libraries have been able to completely replace their print-on-paper collections with e-journals and e-books, but nevertheless, there are many libraries worldwide, especially in the special library sector, which have gone virtually digital where in a very real sense the whole library is contained in a computer. An example of a totally digital and commercial library would be Microsoft's Corbis.
This huge database comprises the largest collection of digital art and photography in the world, and half a million individuals visit this digital art library each day via the Internet. Those who discover art or photography that they want to own on the site can purchase these materials from Corbis. Thus, by the beginning of the twenty-first century, every aspect of human existence has been influenced by the new IT. However, two particularly pressing information-era issues emerged to trouble all of those who were charged with planning library development.
In , Daniel Bell , the distinguished Harvard University sociologist, published his now-famous book titled The Coming of Post-Industrial Society , in which he forecast, with amazing accuracy, the coming of the information revolution, an era he predicted would mark a complete break with our industrial past.
PreK—K , 1—2 , 3—5 , 6—8. If you think of a classroom library as a cozy, welcoming space where students can read quietly or browse through a rich collection of texts, you are only partially correct. The fact that classroom libraries are places for storage and quiet is only one small part of their purpose. They are, in the broadest sense, the backbone of classroom activity. Much of what goes on each day draws from or occurs in or around the resources and space within the classroom library.
In this tutorial, you'll learn about the standard library functions in C. More specifically, what are they, different library functions in C and how to use them in your program. C Standard library functions or simply C Library functions are inbuilt functions in C programming. The prototype and data definitions of these functions are present in their respective header files. To use these functions we need to include the header file in our program.
identify the features of the different types of libraries;. ○ describe their distinct functions;. ○ give illustrative examples of libraries; and. ○ discuss the different.
Visit Us Contact Us. As gateways to knowledge and culture, libraries play a fundamental role in society. The resources and services they offer create opportunities for learning, support literacy and education, and help shape the new ideas and perspectives that are central to a creative and innovative society. They also help ensure an authentic record of knowledge created and accumulated by past generations.
Libraries are much more than a place to read books and journals. Libraries also houses advanced electronic resources, including the Internet, digital library collections, remote access to a wide range of technology and instruction. Bachelor's degree in any subject and Masters degree in library science from an accredited program by the American Library Association. Further details on the occupation of librarianship including salary, job outlook, descriptions of the work is in the Occupational Outlook Handbook. There are more than , libraries throughout the U.
Доедешь до конечной остановки, приятель. Через пять минут автобус, подпрыгивая, несся по темной сельской дороге. Беккер повернулся к панку. - Этот тарантас когда-нибудь остановится. - Еще пять миль. - Куда мы едем.
Среди неясных силуэтов впереди он увидел три торчащие косички. Красная, белая и синяя. Я нашел. В его голове смешались мысли о кольце, о самолете Лирджет-60, который ждал его в ангаре, и, разумеется, о Сьюзан.
National libraries have grown and developed in recent decades in different dimensions, indicating the-need for specialised national libraries on the basis of.
Глушитель кашлянул, Беккер плашмя упал на пол. Пуля ударилась о мрамор совсем рядом, и в следующее мгновение он уже летел вниз по гранитным ступеням к узкому проходу, выходя из которого священнослужители поднимались на алтарь как бы по милости Божьей. У подножия ступенек Беккер споткнулся и, потеряв равновесие, неуправляемо заскользил по отполированному камню. Острая боль пронзила вес его тело, когда он приземлился на бок, но мгновение спустя он уже был на ногах и, скрываемый занавешенным входом, сбежал вниз по деревянным ступенькам. Превозмогая боль, он бежал через гардеробную. У алтаря кто-то кричал, за спиной у него слышались тяжелые шаги.
Могу я поинтересоваться, кто со мной говорит. - А-а… Зигмунд Шмидт, - с трудом нашелся Беккер. - Кто вам дал наш номер. - La Guia Telefonica - желтые страницы. - Да, сэр, мы внесены туда как агентство сопровождения. - Да-да, я и ищу спутницу.
Это была мелочь, но все же изъян, отсутствие чистоты - не этого она ожидала от Танкадо, наносящего свой коронный удар. - Тут что-то не так, - наконец сказала. - Не думаю, что это ключ. Фонтейн глубоко вздохнул. Его темные глаза выжидающе смотрели на Сьюзан.
Если Стратмор получил от Следопыта информацию, значит, тот работал. Она оказалась бессмысленной, потому что он ввел задание в неверной последовательности, но ведь Следопыт работал.
- Сьюзан не знала, как. Бросила взгляд на монитор, потом посмотрела на Грега Хейла. - Сейчас.
Все когда-то бывает в первый раз, - бесстрастно ответил Бринкерхофф. Она встретила эти слова с явным неодобрением. - Я все проверяю дважды.
Данные? - спросил Бринкерхофф. - Какие такие данные. Танкадо отдал кольцо. Вот и все доказательства.
Они также подошли к Танкадо. - Неудачный выбор места, - прокомментировал Смит. - Халохот думал, что поблизости никого. Халохот какое-то время наблюдал за происходящим, потом скрылся за деревьями, по-видимому, выжидая.
Вздор! - крикнул Хейл. - Лифт подключен к энергоснабжению главного здания. Я видел схему. - Да мы уже пробовали, - задыхаясь, сказала Сьюзан, пытаясь хоть чем-то помочь шефу.
- Танкадо оставил нам только один выход-признать существование ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Такая возможность. Последний шанс. Но мы его упустили.
The word "library" was originally drawn from the Latin term liber , which means book.Luke P. 29.05.2021 at 20:59
A library is a curated collection of sources of information and similar resources, selected by experts and made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.