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Electrical and electronics engineering , the branch of engineering concerned with the practical applications of electricity in all its forms, including those of the field of electronics. Electronics engineering is that branch of electrical engineering concerned with the uses of the electromagnetic spectrum and with the application of such electronic devices as integrated circuits and transistors.
In engineering practice, the distinction between electrical engineering and electronics is usually based on the comparative strength of the electric currents used. The distinction between the fields has become less sharp with technical progress. For example, in the high-voltage transmission of electric power , large arrays of electronic devices are used to convert transmission-line current at power levels in the tens of megawatts. Moreover, in the regulation and control of interconnected power systems, electronic computers are used to compute requirements much more rapidly and accurately than is possible by manual methods.
Electrical phenomena attracted the attention of European thinkers as early as the 17th century. Electrical engineering may be said to have emerged as a discipline in when the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell summarized the basic laws of electricity in mathematical form and showed that radiation of electromagnetic energy travels through space at the speed of light. Thus, light itself was shown to be an electromagnetic wave , and Maxwell predicted that such waves could be artificially produced.
The first practical application of electricity was the telegraph, invented by Samuel F. Morse in The need for electrical engineers was not felt until some 40 years later, upon the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell and of the incandescent lamp by Thomas A. Hendrik Antoon Lorentz of the Netherlands postulated the electron theory of electrical charge in , and in J. Thomson of England showed that thermionic emission was indeed caused by negatively charged particles electrons.
This led to the work of Guglielmo Marconi of Italy, Lee de Forest of the United States, and many others, which laid the foundations of radio engineering.
In the term electronics was introduced to embrace radio and the industrial applications of electron tubes.
Since , when the transistor was invented by John Bardeen , Walter H. Brattain , and William B. Shockley , electronics engineering has been dominated by the applications of such solid-state electronic devices as the transistor, the semiconductor diode , and the integrated circuit. The functions performed by electrical and electronics engineers include 1 basic research in physics , other sciences, and applied mathematics in order to extend knowledge applicable to the field of electronics , 2 applied research based on the findings of basic research and directed at discovering new applications and principles of operation, 3 development of new materials, devices, assemblies, and systems suitable for existing or proposed product lines, 4 design of devices, equipment, and systems for manufacture, 5 field-testing of equipment and systems, 6 establishment of quality control standards to be observed in manufacture, 7 supervision of manufacture and production testing, 8 postproduction assessment of performance, maintenance, and repair, and 9 engineering management, or the direction of research, development, engineering, manufacture, and marketing and sales.
The rapid proliferation of new discoveries, products, and markets in the electrical and electronics industries has made it difficult for workers in the field to maintain the range of skills required to manage their activities.
Consulting engineers, specializing in new fields, are employed to study and recommend courses of action. The educational background required for these functions tends to be highest in basic and applied research. In most major laboratories a doctorate in science or engineering is required to fill leadership roles.
The largest of the specialized branches of electrical engineering, the branch concerned with the electronic computer , was introduced during World War II. The field of computer science and engineering has attracted members of several disciplines outside electronics, notably logicians , linguists , and applied mathematicians. Another very large field is that concerned with electric light and power and their applications.
Specialities within the field include the design, manufacture, and use of turbines , generators, transmission lines, transformers , motors , lighting systems, and appliances. A third major field is that of communications, which comprises not only telephony but also satellite communications and the transmission of voice and data by laser signals through optical-fibre networks. The communication of digital data among computers connected by wire, microwave , and satellite circuits is now a major enterprise that has built a strong bond between computer and communications specialists.
The applications of electricity and electronics to other fields of science have expanded since World War II. Among the sciences represented are medicine , biology , oceanography , geoscience , nuclear science, laser physics, sonics and ultrasonics , and acoustics.
Theoretical specialties within electronics include circuit theory, information theory , radio-wave propagation , and microwave theory.
Another important speciality concerns improvements in materials and components used in electrical and electronics engineering, such as conductive, magnetic, and insulating materials and the semiconductors used in solid-state devices. One of the most active areas is the development of new electronic devices, particularly the integrated circuits used in computers and other digital systems. The development of electronic systems—equipment for consumers, such as radios , television sets, stereo equipment, video games , and home computers—occupies a large number of engineers.
Another field is the application of computers and radio systems to automobiles , ships , and other vehicles. The field of aerospace electronic systems includes navigation aids for aircraft , automatic pilots, altimeters , and radar for traffic control , blind landing, and collision prevention. Many of these devices are also widely used in shipping. Electrical and electronics engineering Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
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Subscribe Now. Alexander Graham Bell, inventor who patented the telephone in , lecturing at Salem, Massachusetts top , while friends in his study at Boston listen to his lecture via telephone, February 12, Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. Electrical engineering provides the basics of circuit design—namely, the idea that electrical impulses input to a circuit can be combined using Boolean algebra to produce arbitrary outputs.
The Boolean algebra developed in the 19th century supplied a formalism for designing a circuit with binary input…. Engineering , the application of science to the optimum conversion of the resources of nature to the uses of humankind. Electricity , phenomenon associated with stationary or moving electric charges.
Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter and is borne by elementary particles. In electricity the particle involved is the electron, which carries a charge designated, by convention, as negative.
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Any university b. Also, We have provided B. Also, check the below links for more information:. With the help of this subject, the students will learn the fundamentals of Electrical engineering and Electronic engineering. Also, they will go to experience the Practical implementation of fundamental theory concepts along with the learning process of different applications of generally used electrical machinery. Just click on the below links and directly jump to the exact details of what you are searching for. Candidates can avail of a standard base of topics that will be helpful in the upcoming days by working with the BEEE Books.
underlying themes of electrical engineering for a century and a half. This course the first electronic computer (), the invention of the transistor (), and the publication of A discrete-time-signalspdf). Introduction to Systems.
Electrical and electronics engineering , the branch of engineering concerned with the practical applications of electricity in all its forms, including those of the field of electronics. Electronics engineering is that branch of electrical engineering concerned with the uses of the electromagnetic spectrum and with the application of such electronic devices as integrated circuits and transistors. In engineering practice, the distinction between electrical engineering and electronics is usually based on the comparative strength of the electric currents used.
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Diploma in. Electrical and Electronics Projects for Diploma Students. This control of electrons is accomplished by devices that resist, carry, select, steer, switch, store, manipulate, and exploit the electron. Introduction to Complex Numbers. Electronic Engineering. Concepts in Electric Circuits. Engineering Mathematics: YouTube Workbook.
Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study, design and application of equipment, devices and systems which use electricity , electronics , and electromagnetism. It emerged as an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph , the telephone , and electrical power generation, distribution and use. Electrical engineering is now divided into a wide range of fields, including computer engineering , systems engineering , power engineering , telecommunications , radio-frequency engineering , signal processing , instrumentation , and electronics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations including hardware engineering, power electronics , electromagnetics and waves, microwave engineering , nanotechnology , electrochemistry , renewable energies, mechatronics, and electrical materials science. Electrical engineers typically hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering.
The reason is the electronic devices divert your attention and also cause strains while reading eBooks. Basic Electrical and Electronics Engineering has been written primarily for the first year undergraduate students of engineering to help them understand the basic principles of electrical and electronics engineering. The first part of the book discusses the scope of electrical engineering and gives a detailed coverage on network theorems, magnetic circuits, transformer principles, alternating quantities, synchronous machines, induction motors, basic analogue instruments and power systems. The second part of the book deals with the concepts of electronics engineering and provides an in-depth understanding of semiconductors and diodes, transistors, oscillators and amplifiers.
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