File Name: positive and negative reinforcement theory .zip
Excess Weight. Weight Control. Skinner was one of the most influential of American psychologists.
Excess Weight. Weight Control. Skinner was one of the most influential of American psychologists. A behaviorist, he developed the theory of operant conditioning -- the idea that behavior is determined by its consequences, be they reinforcements or punishments, which make it more or less likely that the behavior will occur again. Skinner believed that the only scientific approach to psychology was one that studied behaviors, not internal subjective mental processes.
The following has been adapted from the Webspace website. Skinner was heavily influenced by the work of John B. Watson as well as early behaviorist pioneers Ivan Pavlov and Edward Thorndike.
He spent most of his professional life teaching at Harvard University after 9 years in the psychology department at Indiana University. He died in of leukemia, leaving behind his wife, Yvonne Blue and two daughters.
Burrhus Frederic Skinner was born March 20, he died in of leukemia , in the small Pennsylvania town of Susquehanna. His father was a lawyer, and his mother a strong and intelligent housewife. His upbringing was old-fashioned and hard-working.
Skinner was an active, out-going boy who loved the outdoors and building things, and actually enjoyed school. His life was not without its tragedies, however. In particular, his brother died at the age of 16 of a cerebral aneurysm. He got his masters in psychology in and his doctorate in , and stayed there to do research until Also in that year, he moved to Minneapolis to teach at the University of Minnesota.
There he met and soon married Yvonne Blue. In , he became the chairman of the psychology department at Indiana University. In , he was invited to come to Harvard, where he remained for the rest of his life.
He was a very active man, doing research and guiding hundreds of doctoral candidates as well as writing many books. While not successful as a writer of fiction and poetry, he became one of our best psychology writers, including the book Walden II, which is a fictional account of a community run by his behaviorist principles.
This special stimulus has the effect of increasing the operant -- that is, the behavior occurring just before the reinforcer. The following has been adapted from the Wikipedia and Webspace websites. Skinner conducted research on shaping behavior through positive and negative reinforcement and demonstrated operant conditioning, a behavior modification technique which he developed in contrast with classical conditioning. His idea of the behavior modification technique was to put the subject on a program with steps.
The steps would be setting goals which would help you determine how the subject would be changed by following the steps. The program design is designing a program that will help the subject to reach the desired state.
Then implementation and evaluation which is putting the program to use and then evaluating the effectiveness of it. The rat is moving around the cage when it accidentally presses the bar and, as a result of pressing the bar, a food pellet falls into the cage. The operant is the behavior just prior to the reinforcer, which is the food pellet. In a relatively short period of time the rat "learns" to press the bar whenever it wants food.
This leads to one of the principles of operant conditioning--A behavior followed by a reinforcing stimulus results in an increased probability of that behavior occurring in the future.
If the rat presses the bar and continually does not get food, the behavior becomes extinguished. This leads to another of the principles of operant conditioning--A behavior no longer followed by the reinforcing stimulus results in a decreased probability of that behavior occurring in the future. This is because the return of the reinforcer takes place in the context of a reinforcement history that goes all the way back to the very first time the rat was reinforced for pushing on the bar.
This leads to what are called the Schedules of Reinforcement. Continuous reinforcement is the original scenario: Every time that the rat does the behavior such as pedal-pushing , he gets a food pellet. The fixed ratio schedule was the first one Skinner discovered: If the rat presses the pedal three times, say, he gets a goodie.
Or five times. Or twenty times. There is a fixed ratio between behaviors and reinforcers: 3 to 1, 5 to 1, 20 to 1, etc. The fixed interval schedule uses a timing device of some sort. If the rat presses the bar at least once during a particular stretch of time say 20 seconds , then he gets a goodie. But even if he hits that bar a hundred times during that 20 seconds, he still only gets one goodie!
Skinner also looked at variable schedules. Variable interval means you keep changing the time period -- first 20 seconds, then 5, then 35, then 10 and so on. Most importantly, these schedules are very resistant to extinction. It makes sense, if you think about it. A question Skinner had to deal with was how we get to more complex sorts of behaviors.
Once that is established, you look out for variations that come a little closer to what you want, and so on, until you have the animal performing a behavior that would never show up in ordinary life. Skinner and his students have been quite successful in teaching simple animals to do some quite extraordinary things. Beyond fairly simple examples, shaping also accounts for the most complex of behaviors.
We are gently shaped by our environment to enjoy certain things. An aversive stimulus is the opposite of a reinforcing stimulus, something we might find unpleasant or painful.
This leads to another principle of operant conditioning--A behavior followed by an aversive stimulus results in a decreased probability of the behavior occurring in the future.
This both defines an aversive stimulus and describes the form of conditioning known as punishment. If you spank Johnny for throwing his toys he will probably throw his toys less and less.
On the other hand, if you remove an already active aversive stimulus after a rat or Johnny performs a certain behavior, you are doing negative reinforcement. Another operant conditioning principle--Behavior followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus results in an increased probability of that behavior occurring in the future. Skinner did not advocate the use of punishment. His main focus was to target behavior and see that consequences deliver responses.
From his research came "shaping" described above which is described as creating behaviors through reinforcing. He also came up with the example of a child's refusal to go to school and that the focus should be on what is causing the child's refusal not necessarily the refusal itself. His research suggested that punishment was an ineffective way of controlling behavior, leading generally to short-term behavior change, but resulting mostly in the subject attempting to avoid the punishing stimulus instead of avoiding the behavior that was causing punishment.
A simple example of this, he believed, was the failure of prison to eliminate criminal behavior. If prison as a punishing stimulus was effective at altering behavior, there would be no criminality, since the risk of imprisonment for criminal conduct is well established, Skinner deduced.
However, he noted that individuals still commit offences, but attempt to avoid discovery and therefore punishment. He noted that the punishing stimulus does not stop criminal behavior; the criminal simply becomes more sophisticated at avoiding the punishment. Reinforcement, both positive and negative the latter of which is often confused with punishment , he believed, proved to be more effective in bringing about lasting changes in behavior. It is very straight-forward: Extinguish an undesirable behavior by removing the reinforcer and replace it with a desirable behavior by reinforcement.
It has been used on all sorts of psychological problems -- addictions, neuroses, shyness, autism, even schizophrenia -- and works particularly well with children.
There is an offshoot of b-mod called the token economy. This is used primarily in institutions such as psychiatric hospitals, juvenile halls, and prisons.
Certain rules are made explicit in the institution, and behaving yourself appropriately is rewarded with tokens -- poker chips, tickets, funny money, recorded notes, etc. Certain poor behavior is also often followed by a withdrawal of these tokens. The tokens can be traded in for desirable things such as candy, cigarettes, games, movies, time out of the institution, and so on.
This has been found to be very effective in maintaining order in these often difficult institutions. In , Skinner published his actual ideas on child-rearing in Walden Two, a fictional account of a behaviorist-created utopia in which carefree young parents stroll off to work or school while their little ones enjoy all the comforts of community-run, behaviorist-approved daycare.
Skinner's book Walden Two presents a vision of a decentralized, localized society which applies a practical, scientific approach and futuristically advanced behavioral expertise to peacefully deal with social problems.
Skinner's utopia, like every other utopia or dystopia, is both a thought experiment and a rhetorical work. In he wrote Beyond Freedom and Dignity, which suggests that the concept of individual freedom is an illusion. Skinner later sought to unite the reinforcement of individual behaviors, the natural selection of species, and the development of cultures under the heading of The Selection by Consequences , the first of a series of articles in the journal Science. For more information about B.
Skinner and mental health treatment, please click on the websites listed below. Table of Contents. Emotional Problems. Lack of Confidence. Eating Disorders. Binge Eating. Eating and Weight. Emotional Eating. Loved Ones. Drug and Alcohol. Behavioral Problems. Adjustment Disorder. Conduct Disorders. Explosive Disorder.
In Applied Behavior Analysis , there are two types of reinforcement and punishment: positive and negative. It can be difficult to distinguish between the four of these. Therefore, the purpose of this blog is to explain the differences in order to help parents and professionals develop appropriate interventions to improve behavior. Negative reinforcement occurs when a certain stimulus usually an aversive stimulus is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. Negative reinforcement should not be thought of as a punishment procedure.
Discipline is important for a child's success and development - most teaching staff would vouch for that. It's easy to think that discipline is always a form of punishment, but in truth, this doesn't have to be the case. Operant conditioning encourages positive reinforcement, which can be applied in the classroom environment to get the good behavior you want - and need - from your pupils. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning uses both positive and negative reinforcements to encourage good and wanted behavior whilst deterring bad and unwanted behavior. Psychologists have observed that we every action has a consequence, and if this is good, the person is more likely to do it again in the future.
Reinforcement theory includes four. approaches, these approaches are: Positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement. Extinction. Punishment. 3.
Operant conditioning is a learning process whereby deliberate behaviors are reinforced through consequences. It differs from classical conditioning, also called respondent or Pavlovian conditioning, in which involuntary behaviors are triggered by external stimuli. With classical conditioning , a dog that has learned the sound of a bell precedes the arrival of food may begin to salivate at the sound of a bell, even if no food arrives. By contrast, a dog might learn that, by sitting and staying, it will earn a treat. If the dog then gets better at sitting and staying in order to receive the treat, then this is an example of operant conditioning.
WP Courseware version 4. Check it out here! Negative reinforcement and positive reinforcement are two of those terms that originated in science , yet are thrown around casually in conversation so much that most people misuse them all the time. Most people assume that negative reinforcement is very similar to punishment , but they actually have very different meanings.
You want your students to stop throwing a ball around the class. Is it better to let them keep the ball and give them detention, or take the ball away? Negative reinforcement is a classroom management strategy that focuses on removing or negating stimuli from students to promote positive behaviours. When you remove the ball, you could be faced with a lot of — probably insincere — indignation. Your students will perform a behaviour and see, feel, and understand the immediate consequence. The aim of negative reinforcement is to increase the likelihood of the behaviour recurring by removing or acting to avoid negative behaviours. Reinforcement positive or negative is ultimately about increasing behaviour.
Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence whether negative or positive for that behavior. For example, when lab rats press a lever when a green light is on, they receive a food pellet as a reward. When they press the lever when a red light is on, they receive a mild electric shock. As a result, they learn to press the lever when the green light is on and avoid the red light. But operant conditioning is not just something that takes place in experimental settings while training lab animals. It also plays a powerful role in everyday learning.
Reinforcement theory of motivation was proposed by BF Skinner and his associates. Reinforcement theory of motivation overlooks the internal state of individual, i. This theory focuses totally on what happens to an individual when he takes some action. Thus, according to Skinner, the external environment of the organization must be designed effectively and positively so as to motivate the employee. Reinforcement theory explains in detail how an individual learns behaviour. Managers who are making attempt to motivate the employees must ensure that they do not reward all employees simultaneously. They must tell the employees what they are not doing correct.
Скорее всего он надеялся, что никого не застанет в Третьем узле. Сьюзан постаралась сохранить спокойствие. - Сегодня суббота, Грег. Могу задать тебе точно такой же вопрос.
Он видел ее на крошечном экране. Эту женщину, которая смотрела на него из другого мира. Она наблюдает за тем, как я умираю. - Дэвид… Голос показался ему знакомым.
Когда санитары отвезли тело Танкадо в морг, офицер попытался расспросить канадца о том, что произошло. Единственное, что он понял из его сбивчивого рассказа, - это что перед смертью Танкадо отдал кольцо. - Танкадо отдал кольцо? - скептически отозвалась Сьюзан. - Да. Такое впечатление, что он его буквально всучил - канадцу показалось, будто бы он просил, чтобы кольцо взяли.
- Ну прямо цирк. - Он провел рукой по подбородку, на котором темнела полуторасуточная щетина. - А что Следопыт.
Самообразование за тюремной решеткой. Хейл засмеялся. - Нет, серьезно, Сьюзан, тебе никогда не приходило в голову, что это все-таки возможно и что Танкадо действительно придумал невзламываемый алгоритм. Этот разговор был ей неприятен. - Ну, мы не сумели этого сделать.
У него был такой вид, словно он только что увидел привидение. - Какого черта здесь нужно Чатрукьяну? - недовольно поинтересовался Стратмор. - Сегодня не его дежурство. - Похоже, что-то стряслось, - сказала Сьюзан. - Наверное, увидел включенный монитор.
Давайте скорее. Попробуем порыскать. ГЛАВА 125 - Сколько у нас времени? - крикнул Джабба.
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