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Muslim scholars have developed a spectrum of viewpoints on science within the context of Islam. Scientists of medieval Muslim civilization e. Ibn al-Haytham contributed to the new discoveries of science. Aside from contributions by Muslims to mathematics , astronomy , medicine and natural philosophy , some have argued a very different connection between the religion of Islam and the discipline of science.
Muslim scholars have developed a spectrum of viewpoints on science within the context of Islam. Scientists of medieval Muslim civilization e. Ibn al-Haytham contributed to the new discoveries of science. Aside from contributions by Muslims to mathematics , astronomy , medicine and natural philosophy , some have argued a very different connection between the religion of Islam and the discipline of science. Some Muslim writers have claimed that the Quran made prescient statements about scientific phenomena that were later confirmed by scientific research for instance as regards to the structure of the embryo, our solar system, and the creation of the universe.
Science is often defined as the pursuit of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence. Scientists maintain that scientific investigation needs to adhere to the scientific method , a process for evaluating empirical knowledge that explains observable events without recourse to supernatural notions.
According to Toby Huff, there is no true word for science in Arabic the language of Islam as commonly defined in English and other languages. In Arabic, "science" can simply mean different forms of knowledge. For example, according to Muzaffar Iqbal, Huff's framework of inquiry "is based on the synthetic model of Robert Merton who had made no use of any Islamic sources or concepts dealing with the theory of knowledge or social organization"  Each branch of science has its own name, but all branches of science have a common prefix, ilm.
Many Muslims agree that doing science is an act of religious merit, even a collective duty of the Muslim community. Shamsher Ali, there are around verses in the Quran dealing with natural phenomena. According to the Encyclopedia of the Quran, many verses of the Quran ask mankind to study nature, and this has been interpreted to mean an encouragement for scientific inquiry,  and the investigation of the truth.
Mohammad Hashim Kamali has stated that "scientific observation, experimental knowledge and rationality" are the primary tools with which humanity can achieve the goals laid out for it in the Quran. The physicist Abdus Salam believed there is no contradiction between Islam and the discoveries that science allows humanity to make about nature and the universe; and that the Quran and the Islamic spirit of study and rational reflection was the source of extraordinary civilizational development.
Salam highlights, in particular, the work of Ibn al-Haytham and Al-Biruni as the pioneers of empiricism who introduced the experimental approach, breaking way from Aristotle's influence, and thus giving birth to modern science. Salam differentiated between metaphysics and physics, and advised against empirically probing certain matters on which "physics is silent and will remain so," such as the doctrine of "creation from nothing" which in Salam's view is outside the limits of science and thus "gives way" to religious considerations.
Islam has its own world view system including beliefs about "ultimate reality, epistemology, ontology, ethics, purpose, etc. Toshihiko Izutsu writes that in Islam, nature is not seen as something separate but as an integral part of a holistic outlook on God, humanity, the world and the cosmos. These links imply a sacred aspect to Muslims' pursuit of scientific knowledge, as nature itself is viewed in the Quran as a compilation of signs pointing to the Divine.
The astrophysicist Nidhal Guessoum argues that the Quran has developed "the concept of knowledge" that encourages scientific discovery. Guessoum cites Ghaleb Hasan on the definition of "proof" according the Quran being "clear and strong Lastly, both assertions and rejections require a proof, according to verse Such literal under-standings, when confronted with modern scientific medical knowledge, led many Muslims to realize that first-degree readings of the Quran can lead to contradictions and predicaments.
Islamists such as Sayyid Qutb argue that since "Islam appointed" Muslims "as representatives of God and made them responsible for learning all the sciences,"  science cannot but prosper in a society of true Islam. However, since Muslim majority countries governments have failed to follow the sharia law in its completeness, true Islam has not prevailed and this explains the failure of science and many other things in the Muslim world, according to Qutb.
Others claim traditional interpretations of Islam are not compatible with the development of science. Author Rodney Stark argues that Islam's lag behind the West in scientific advancement after roughly AD was due to opposition by traditional ulema to efforts to formulate systematic explanation of natural phenomenon with "natural laws. To Edis, many Muslims appreciate technology and respect the role that science plays in its creation.
As a result, he says there is a great deal of Islamic pseudoscience attempting to reconcile this respect with other respected religious beliefs. Edis maintains that the motivation to read modern scientific truths into holy books is also stronger for Muslims than Christians. While Christianity is less prone to see its Holy Book as the direct word of God, fewer Muslims will compromise on this idea — causing them to believe that scientific truths simply must appear in the Quran.
However, Edis argues that there are endless examples of scientific discoveries that could be read into the Bible or Quran if one would like to.
The Quran contains many verses describing creation of the universe—the sun, moon, stars, earth, humanity, etc. The Quran describes God as creating the heavens and earth "Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days" Quran ;  the earth as created in two days ,  and in two additional days for a total of four God furnished the earth with mountains, rivers and fruit-gardens While many of these descriptions clash with the findings of modern science, according to claims in recent Islamic popular literature these verses and many others reveal "scientific facts" and demonstrate that the Quran must be of divine origin.
Starting in the s and 80s, this "popular literature known as ijaz " miracle , and often called "Scientific miracles in the Quran" by supporters and " Bucailleism " by others,  developed and spread to Muslim bookstores, websites, and television programs of Islamic preachers. Enthusiasts of the movement argue that among the miracles found in the Quran are "everything, from relativity , quantum mechanics , Big Bang theory , black holes and pulsars , genetics , embryology , modern geology , thermodynamics , even the laser and hydrogen fuel cells ".
Zafar Ishaq Ansari describes the idea that "the Quran and the Sunna " contain "a substantially large number of scientific truths that were discovered only in modern times" as one of the "new themes and emphases" of "scientific exegesis of the Quran".
Some examples are the verse "So verily I swear by the stars that run and hide Qur'an —76  which proponents claim demonstrates the Quran's knowledge of the existence of black holes ; "[I swear by] the Moon in her fullness; that ye shall journey on from stage to stage" Q—19 refers, according to proponents, to human flight into outer space. The verse "Your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days and then settled Himself firmly on the Throne" Q is explained by the Arabic word for day -- youm —referring not to a 24 hour period from one sunrise to the next, but to much longer eons of which there must be six distinct ones in the history of universe.
One claim that has received widespread attention and has even been the subject of a medical school textbook widely used in the Muslim world  is that several Quranic verses foretell the study of embryology and "provide a detailed description of the significant events in human development from the stages of gametes and conception until the full term pregnancy and delivery or even post partum.
In , an authority on Embryology, Keith L. Moore , had a special edition published of his widely used textbook on Embryology The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology , co-authored by a leader of the scientific miracles movement, Abdul Majeed al-Zindani.
This edition, The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology with Islamic Additions ,  interspersed pages of "embryology-related Quranic verse and hadith" by al-Zindani into Moore's original work. At least one Muslim-born physician Ali A. In , Moore declined to be interviewed by the Wall Street Journal on the subject of his work on Islam, stating that "it's been ten or eleven years since I was involved in the Qur'an.
As of , both Muslims and non-Muslims have disputed whether there actually are "scientific miracles" in the Quran. Pakistani theoretical physicist Pervez Hoodbhoy writes that. Nor is any kind of testable prediction ever made. No reason is offered as to why antibiotics, aspirin, steam engines, electricity, aircraft, or computers were not first invented by Muslims.
But even to ask such questions is considered offensive. Giving the example of the roundness of the earth and the invention of the television, [note 4] a Christian site "Evidence for God's Unchanging World" complains the "scientific facts" are too vague to be miraculous:.
Critics argue that while it is generally agreed the Quran contains many verses proclaiming the wonders of nature,. Nidhal Guessoum points out as noted above , that a literal interpretation of some Quranic verses indicates that before a baby is born its gender is known only to God, i. This was what Muslims believed for centuries, but ultrasound technology has "led many Muslims to realize that first-degree readings of the Quran can lead to contradictions and predicaments".
One of the earliest accounts of the use of science in the Islamic world is during the eighth and sixteenth centuries, known as the Islamic Golden Age. The mass translation movement, that occurred in the ninth century allowed for the integration of science into the Islamic world. The teachings from the Greeks were now translated and their scientific knowledge was now passed on to the Arabs world. Despite these terms, not all scientists during this period were Muslim or Arab , as there were a number of notable non-Arab scientists most notably Persians , as well as some non-Muslim scientists, who contributed to scientific studies in the Muslim world.
The mass translation movement in the ninth century allowed for the integration of science into the Islamic world. A number of modern scholars such as Fielding H. Garrison , Sultan Bashir Mahmood , Hossein Nasr consider modern science and the scientific method to have been greatly inspired by Muslim scientists who introduced a modern empirical , experimental and quantitative approach to scientific inquiry. The increased use of dissection in Islamic medicine during the 12th and 13th centuries was influenced by the writings of the Islamic theologian , Al-Ghazali , who encouraged the study of anatomy and use of dissections as a method of gaining knowledge of God's creation.
This culminated in the work of Ibn al-Nafis — , who discovered the pulmonary circulation in and used his discovery as evidence for the orthodox Islamic doctrine of bodily resurrection. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi — , in dealing with his conception of physics and the physical world in his Matalib , discusses Islamic cosmology , criticizes the Aristotelian notion of the Earth's centrality within the universe, and "explores the notion of the existence of a multiverse in the context of his commentary," based on the Quranic verse, "All praise belongs to God, Lord of the Worlds.
According to many historians, science in the Muslim civilization flourished during the Middle Ages , but began declining at some time around the 14th  to 16th  centuries. At least some scholars blame this on the "rise of a clerical faction which froze this same science and withered its progress.
Scientific methods have been historically applied to find solutions to the technical exigencies of Islamic religious rituals, which is a characteristic of Islam that sets it apart from other religions. These ritual considerations include a lunar calendar, definition of prayer times based on the position of the sun, and a direction of prayer set at a specific location. Scientific methods have also been applied to Islamic laws governing the distribution of inheritances and to Islamic decorative arts.
Some of these problems were tackled by both medieval scientists of the Islamic world and scholars of Islamic law. Though these two groups generally used different methods, there is little evidence of serious controversy between them on these subjects, with the exception of the criticism leveled by religious scholars at the methods of astronomy due to its association with astrology.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, modern science arrived in the Muslim world but it was not the science itself that affected Muslim scholars. Rather, it "was the transfer of various philosophical currents entangled with science that had a profound effect on the minds of Muslim scientists and intellectuals. Schools like Positivism and Darwinism penetrated the Muslim world and dominated its academic circles and had a noticeable impact on some Islamic theological doctrines.
One of the main reasons the Muslim world was held behind when Europe continued its ascent was that the printing press was banned. And there was a time when the Ottoman Sultan issued a decree that anybody caught with a printing press shall be executed for heresy, and anybody who owns a printed book shall basically be thrown into jail.
In the early twentieth century, Shia ulema forbade the learning of foreign languages and dissection of human bodies in the medical school in Iran. After that, Shia ulama not only were not against the modern astronomy but also they believed that the Quran and Islamic hadiths of Imams admit it.
In recent years, the lagging of the Muslim world in science is manifest in the disproportionately small amount of scientific output as measured by citations of articles published in internationally circulating science journals, annual expenditures on research and development, and numbers of research scientists and engineers. He gives as an example science's denial he claims of telepathy when in fact it is documented in hadith that Caliph Umar prevented commander Sariah from being ambushed by communicating with him telepathically.
The conflicts between these two ideas can become quite complicated. It has been argued that "Muslims must be able to maintain the traditional Islamic intellectual space for the legitimate continuation of the Islamic view of the nature of reality to which Islamic ethics corresponds, without denying the legitimacy of modern science within their own confines".
While the Natural sciences have not been "fully institutionalized" in predominately Islamic countries, engineering is one of the most popular career choices of Middle Eastern students, and it could be argued as one applied science that would work in conjunction to religion. During the twentieth century, the Islamic world was introduced to modern science. This was able to occur due to the expansion of educational systems, for example, in Istanbul and Cairo opened universities.
Unlike some of the discords between science and Islam in the past, the concerns for some of the modern students were different. This discord for Islam was naturalism and social Darwinism, which challenged some beliefs. On the other hand, there was a new light into thinking of the harmony between science and Islam.
However, many scientist thinkers through the Islamic word still take this passage to heart when it come to their work. However, there are also some strong believers that with modern viewpoints such as social Darwinism challenged all medieval world views, including that of Islam.
Some didn't even want to be affiliated with modern science, and thought it was just an outside look into Islam. That the meaning of science is also knowledge, that of many different aspects. There is a sense of wonder, an open mind that allows for people to have both religious values and scientific thought.
Along with positive outlooks on modern science is the Islamic world, there are many negative ones as well.
It has become the idea for some that the practice of modern science, is that of studying Western science. A large issue that concerns those who don't believe in the study of Western science, is where the knowledge originated.
Islam placed a high value on education, and, as the faith spread among diverse peoples, education became an important channel through which to create a universal and cohesive social order. By the middle of the 9th century, knowledge was divided into three categories: the Islamic sciences, the philosophical and natural sciences Greek knowledge , and the literary arts. Early Muslim education emphasized practical studies, such as the application of technological expertise to the development of irrigation systems, architectural innovations , textiles, iron and steel products, earthenware, and leather products; the manufacture of paper and gunpowder; the advancement of commerce; and the maintenance of a merchant marine. After the 11th century, however, denominational interests dominated higher learning , and the Islamic sciences achieved preeminence. Greek knowledge was studied in private, if at all, and the literary arts diminished in significance as educational policies encouraging academic freedom and new learning were replaced by a closed system characterized by an intolerance toward scientific innovations, secular subjects, and creative scholarship. This denominational system spread throughout eastern Islam from Transoxania roughly, modern-day Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and southwest Kazakhstan to Egypt, with some 75 schools in existence between about and
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi was still a young man when the Assassins made him an offer he couldn't refuse. His hometown had been devastated by Mongol armies, and so, early in the 13th century, al-Tusi, a promising astronomer and philosopher, came to dwell in the legendary fortress city of Alamut in the mountains of northern Persia. He lived among a heretical and secretive sect of Shiite Muslims, whose members practiced political murder as a tactic and were dubbed hashishinn, legend has it, because of their use of hashish. Although al-Tusi later said he had been held in Alamut against his will, the library there was renowned for its excellence, and al-Tusi thrived there, publishing works on astronomy, ethics, mathematics and philosophy that marked him as one of the great intellectuals of his age. But when the armies of Halagu, the grandson of Genghis Khan, massed outside the city in , al-Tusi had little trouble deciding where his loyalties lay. He joined Halagu and accompanied him to Baghdad, which fell in The grateful Halagu built him an observatory at Maragha, in what is now northwestern Iran.
But the truth was that, he was illiterate. It Riba is clearly prohibited in the Holy Qur'an and Hadith, and equated in these as something that would be a bar to individual salvation . In these books, basic Islamic injunctions have been portrayed in a simple and easy way, aided by Quranic references, Ahadith and episodes from the life of our Prophet Muhammad PBUH. The original Muslim literature is in Arabic, the Prophet's language. Islam was started years ago in Arab.
Islamic studies refers to the academic study of Islam.
Specialists in the discipline apply methods adapted from several ancillary fields, ranging from Biblical studies and classical philology to modern history , legal history and sociology. Islam considers serving others as a great act of worship. Jul 16, - This Urdu Book is about the relationship between Islam and science.
This booklet by Dr. It is based on a transcription of a lecture given by Dr. Bucaille in French. In this reprint, I decided to improve its presentation by simplifying the language and editing the text from an oral format to a pamphlet format. I took the liberty of including explanatory portions from his book where more detail was necessary.
PDF | On Jan 1, , Roxanne D. Marcotte published Islam and four explores this 'fundamental nexus' between the Islamic scientiﬁc tradition the perspective of the Islamic concept of nature taken as a whole and within.Inda S. 27.05.2021 at 17:28
Muslim science that had risen in concert and harmony with religion. whole dire state, and playing the major part in dissociating Islam and science, is the scholars also realised that understanding the complexities of the universe, its order.raven E. 30.05.2021 at 07:42
A. Allah as Creator: Fine tuning, design, the anthropic principle and the The convening of the “Task Force on Islam and Science” is a major intellectual rithillel.org accessed on February 25,Patrick S. 01.06.2021 at 11:34
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