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Types of socialism include a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control    of the means of production     and organizational self-management of enterprises   as well as the political theories and movements associated with socialism. As a term, socialism represents a broad range of theoretical and historical socioeconomic systems and has also been used by many political movements throughout history to describe themselves and their goals, generating a variety of socialism types.
In the second type of socialism, planning is utilized and include a system of accounting based on calculation-in-kind to value resources and goods wherein production is carried out directly for use.
There have been numerous political movements such as anarchism , communism , the labour movement , Marxism , social democracy and syndicalism , whose members called themselves socialists under some definition of the term—some of these interpretations are mutually exclusive and all of them have generated debates over the true meaning of socialism. The term socialism was coined in the s and it was first used to refer to philosophical or moral beliefs rather than any specific political views.
Alexandre Vinet , who claimed to have been the first person to use the term, defined socialism simply as "the opposite of individualism ". In a similar vein, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon claimed that socialism is "every aspiration towards the amelioration of society".
In the first half of the 19th century, many writers who described themselves as socialists—and who would be later called utopian socialists —wrote down descriptions of what they believed to be the ideal human society. Some of them also created small communities that put their ideals into practice.
A constant feature of these ideal societies was social and economic equality. Because the people who proposed the creation of such societies called themselves socialists, the term socialism came to refer not only to a certain moral doctrine, but also to a type of egalitarian society based on such a doctrine.
Other early advocates of socialism took a more scientific approach by favouring social leveling to create a meritocratic society based upon freedom for individual talent to prosper. Other early socialist thinkers such as Charles Hall and Thomas Hodgskin based their ideas on David Ricardo 's economic theories. They reasoned that the equilibrium value of commodities approximated to prices charged by the producer when those commodities were in elastic supply and that these producer prices corresponded to the embodied labor, i.
The Ricardian socialists viewed profit, interest and rent as deductions from this exchange-value. After the advent of Karl Marx 's theory of capitalism and scientific socialism , socialism came to refer to ownership and administration of the means of production by the working class, either through the state apparatus or through independent cooperatives.
In Marxist theory, socialism refers to a specific stage of social and economic development that will displace capitalism, characterized by coordinated production, public or cooperative ownership of capital, diminishing class conflict and inequalities that spawn from such and the end of wage-labor with a method of compensation based on the principle of " From each according to his ability, to each according to his contribution ".
Although they share a common root as elaborated upon in the above sections , schools of socialism are divided on many issues and sometimes there is a split within a school. The following is a brief overview of the major issues which have generated or are generating significant controversy amongst socialists in general.
Some branches of socialism arose largely as a philosophical construct e. A few arose merely as the product of a ruling party e. Stalinism , other as a product or various worker movements e.
Some are in favour of a socialist revolution e. Maoism , Marxism—Leninism , revolutionary socialism , social anarchism and Trotskyism whilst others tend to support reform instead e. Fabianism and individualist anarchism. Others believe both are possible e. The first utopian socialists even failed to address the question of how a socialist society would be achieved, upholding the belief that technology was a necessity for a socialist society and that they themselves had no comprehension of the technology of the future.
Socialists are also divided on which rights and liberties are desirable such as the bourgeois liberties like those guaranteed by the United States First Amendment or the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
Some hold that they are to be preserved or even enhanced in a socialist society e. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels even held different opinions at different times and some schools are divided on this issue e. All socialists criticize the current system in some way.
Some criticisms center on the ownership of the means of production e. Marxism whereas others tend to focus on the nature of mass and equitable distribution e.
Most are opposed to unchecked industrialism as well as capitalism e. Utopian socialists like Robert Owen and Henri de Saint-Simon argued, although not from exactly the same perspective, that the injustice and widespread poverty of the societies they lived in were a problem of distribution of the goods created. On the other hand, Marxian socialists determined that the root of the injustice is based not in the function of distribution of goods already created, but rather in the fact that the ownership of the means of production is in the hands of the upper class.
Marxian socialists also maintain in contrast to the utopian socialists that the root of injustice is not in how goods commodities are distributed, but for whose economic benefit are they produced and sold.
Most forms and derivatives of Marxism and anarchism advocated total or near-total socialization of the economy. Less radical schools e. Bernsteinism , reformism and reformist Marxism proposed a mixed market economy instead. Mixed economies can in turn range anywhere from those developed by the social democratic governments that have periodically governed Northern and Western European countries, to the inclusion of small cooperatives in the planned economy of Yugoslavia under Josip Broz Tito.
A related issue is whether it is better to reform capitalism to create a fairer society e. Some schools advocate centralized state control of the socialized sectors of the economy e. Leninism , whilst others argue for control of those sectors by workers' councils e.
This question is usually referred to by socialists in terms of "ownership of the means of production ". None of the social democratic parties of Europe advocate total state ownership of the means of production in their contemporary demands and popular press.
Another issue socialists are divided on is what legal and political apparatus the workers would maintain and further develop the socialization of the means of production. Some advocate that the power of the workers' councils should itself constitute the basis of a socialist state coupled with direct democracy and the widespread use of referendums , but others hold that socialism entails the existence of a legislative body administered by people who would be elected in a representative democracy.
Different ideologies support different governments. During the era of the Soviet Union, Western socialists were bitterly divided as to whether the Soviet Union was actually socialist, moving toward socialism, or inherently unsocialist and in fact inimical to true socialism.
Similarly, today the government of the People's Republic of China claims to be socialist and refers to its own approach as socialism with Chinese characteristics , but many other socialists consider modern China to be essentially capitalist. The Chinese leadership concurs with most of the usual critiques against a command economy and many of their actions to manage what they call a socialist economy have been determined by this opinion.
This form of socialism combines public ownership and management of the means of production with centralized state planning and can refer to a broad range of economic systems from the centralized Soviet-style command economy to participatory planning via workplace democracy. In a centrally-planned economy decisions regarding the quantity of goods and services to be produced as well as the allocation of output distribution of goods and services are planned in advanced by a planning agency.
This type of economic system was often combined with a one-party political system and is associated with the Communist states of the 20th century. A state-directed economy is a system where either the state or worker cooperatives own the means of production, but economic activity is directed to some degree by a government agency or planning ministry through mechanisms such as indicative planning or dirigisme. This differs from a centralized planned economy, or a command economy, in that micro-economic decision making, such as quantity to be produced and output requirements, is left to managers and workers in state enterprises or cooperative enterprises rather than being mandated by a comprehensive economic plan from a centralized planning board.
However, the state will plan long-term strategic investment and some aspect of production. It is possible for a state-directed economy to have elements of both a market and planned economy. For example, production and investment decisions may be semi-planned by the state, but distribution of output may be determined by the market mechanism.
State-directed socialism can also refer to technocratic socialism—economic systems that rely on technocratic management and technocratic planning mechanisms, along with public ownership of the means of production. A forerunner of this concept was Henri de Saint-Simon , who understood the state would undergo a transformation in a socialist system and change its role from one of "political administration of men, to the administration of things".
Elements of state-directed socialist economies include dirigisme , economic planning , state socialism and technocracy. A decentralized planned economy is one where ownership of enterprises is accomplished through various forms of self-management and worker cooperatives in which planning of production and distribution is done from the bottom-up by local worker councils in a democratic manner.
This form of socialist economy is related to the political philosophies of libertarian socialism , syndicalism and various forms of communal utopian socialism. Examples of decentralized democratic planning include council communism , individualist anarchism , industrial democracy , participatory economics , Soviet democracy and syndicalism. Market socialism refers to various economic systems that involve either public ownership and management or worker cooperative ownership over the means of production, or a combination of both, and the market mechanism for allocating economic output, deciding what to produce and in what quantity.
In state-oriented forms of market socialism where state enterprises attempt to maximize profit, the profits can fund government programs and services eliminating or greatly diminishing the need for various forms of taxation that exist in capitalist systems.
Some forms of market socialism are based on neoclassical economic theory , with the aim of attaining pareto efficiency by setting price to equal marginal cost in public enterprises. Other forms of market socialism are based on classical economics , such as those advocated by Thomas Hodgskin , who viewed interest accumulation, rent and profit as deductions from exchange-value, so that eliminating the capitalist element from the economy would lead to a free market and socialism.
The term market socialism has also been applied to planned economic systems that try to organize themselves partially along market-lines while retaining centralized state ownership of capital. Examples of market socialism include economic democracy , the Lange model , liberal socialism , market-oriented left-libertarianism , mutualism the New Economic Mechanism and Ricardian socialism.
Other types of market socialist systems such as mutualism are related to the political philosophy of libertarian socialism.
A socialist market economy refers to the economic systems adopted by the People's Republic of China and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Although there is dispute as to whether or not these models actually constitute state capitalism , the decisive means of production remain under state-ownership. State enterprises are organized into corporations corporatization and operate like private capitalist enterprises.
A substantial private sector exists alongside the state sector of the economy, but it plays a secondary role usually relegated to the service sector and production of consumer goods.
Examples of socialist market economies include the socialist market economy with Chinese characteristics and the socialist-oriented market economy. Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon , Charles Fourier and Robert Owen , which inspired Karl Marx and other early socialists.
Sociocracy is a socialist-positivist political view created by Auguste Comte , based on Saint-Simon's aristocratic, utopian socialist heritage, prioritizing social justice and a central government with direct democracy without parliament. Religious sects whose members live communally, such as the Hutterites , for example, are not usually called "utopian socialists", although their way of living is a prime example.
They have been categorized as religious socialists by some. Similarly, modern intentional communities based on socialist ideas could also be categorized as "utopian socialist". While Marxism had a significant impact on socialist thought, pre-Marxist thinkers before Marx wrote on the subject have advocated socialism in forms both similar and in stark contrast to Marx and Friedrich Engels ' conception of socialism, advocating some form of collective ownership over large-scale production, worker-management within the workplace, or in some cases a form of planned economy.
Early socialist philosophers and political theorists included Gerrard Winstanley , who founded the Diggers movement in the United Kingdom; Charles Fourier, French philosopher who propounded principles very similar to that of Marx; Louis Blanqui , French socialist and writer; Marcus Thrane , Norwegian socialist; Jean-Jacques Rousseau , Genevan philosopher, writer and composer whose works influenced the French Revolution ; and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon , French politician writer.
Communism from Latin communis , "common, universal"   is a philosophical , social , political , economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of a communist society , namely a socioeconomic order structured upon the ideas of common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes , money   and the state.
Communism is usually distinguished from socialism since the s. The modern definition and usage of socialism settled by the s, becoming the predominant term among the group of words associationist, co-operative and mutualist which had previously been used as synonyms.
Instead, communism fell out of use during this period. It was not until after the Bolshevik Revolution that socialism came to refer to a distinct stage between capitalism and communism , introduced by Vladimir Lenin as a means to defend the Bolshevik seizure of power against traditional Marxist criticism that Russia's productive forces were not sufficiently developed for socialist revolution.
Both communism and socialism eventually accorded with the adherents' and opponents' cultural attitude towards religion. In Christian Europe, communism was believed to be the atheist way of life. In Protestant England, communism was too culturally and aurally close to the Roman Catholic communion rite , hence English atheists denoted themselves socialists. The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists.
The dominant forms of communism are based on Marxism, but non-Marxist versions of communism such as anarcho-communism and Christian communism also exist. According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx , "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc.
He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that "socialism" and "Communism" are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death".
Marxism, or Marxist communism, refers to classless , stateless social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production and to a variety of movements acting in the name of this goal which are influenced by the thought of Karl Marx.
Types of socialism include a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control    of the means of production     and organizational self-management of enterprises   as well as the political theories and movements associated with socialism. As a term, socialism represents a broad range of theoretical and historical socioeconomic systems and has also been used by many political movements throughout history to describe themselves and their goals, generating a variety of socialism types. In the second type of socialism, planning is utilized and include a system of accounting based on calculation-in-kind to value resources and goods wherein production is carried out directly for use. There have been numerous political movements such as anarchism , communism , the labour movement , Marxism , social democracy and syndicalism , whose members called themselves socialists under some definition of the term—some of these interpretations are mutually exclusive and all of them have generated debates over the true meaning of socialism. The term socialism was coined in the s and it was first used to refer to philosophical or moral beliefs rather than any specific political views. Alexandre Vinet , who claimed to have been the first person to use the term, defined socialism simply as "the opposite of individualism ". In a similar vein, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon claimed that socialism is "every aspiration towards the amelioration of society".
Socialism is a political , social , and economic philosophy encompassing a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production. Socialist systems are divided into non-market and market forms. Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. Socialist politics has been both internationalist and nationalist in orientation; organised through political parties and opposed to party politics; at times overlapping with trade unions and at other times independent and critical of them; and present in both industrialised and developing nations. The socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. Today, many socialists have also adopted the causes of other social movements such as environmentalism , feminism and progressivism.
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Marx's formulation of the alienation problematic is grounded in a strategic set of underlying assumptions concerning the human condition. On the one hand, people are seen as the creators of their material and mental world through their labour activity. They are endowed with natural human qualities, creative powers and historically existing potentialities that are essential to human growth.
Вы можете заметить, - продолжал Смит, - что взгляд его устремлен. Он ни разу не посмотрел по сторонам. - Это так важно? - полувопросительно произнес Джабба. - Очень важно, - сказал Смит. - Если бы Танкадо подозревал некий подвох, он инстинктивно стал бы искать глазами убийцу. Как вы можете убедиться, этого не произошло. На экране Танкадо рухнул на колени, по-прежнему прижимая руку к груди и так ни разу и не подняв глаз.
- Бринкерхофф посмотрел на нее осуждающе. - Дай парню передохнуть. Ни для кого не было секретом, что Мидж Милкен недолюбливала Тревора Стратмора. Стратмор придумал хитроумный ход, чтобы приспособить Попрыгунчика к нуждам агентства, но его схватили за руку. Несмотря ни на что, АН Б это стоило больших денег. Фонд электронных границ усилил свое влияние, доверие к Фонтейну в конгрессе резко упало, и, что еще хуже, агентство перестало быть анонимным.
- В обеих бомбах уран. Элементы, ответственные за Хиросиму и Нагасаки, - оба являются ураном. Никакого различия. - Мы погибли, - прошептала Мидж. - Подождите, - сказала Сьюзан. - Прочитайте еще .
Компьютер зафиксировал ее прибытие. Хотя Сьюзан практически не покидала шифровалку в последние три года, она не переставала восхищаться этим сооружением. Главное помещение представляло собой громадную округлую камеру высотой в пять этажей. Ее прозрачный куполообразный потолок в центральной части поднимался на 120 футов. Купол из плексигласа имел ячеистую структуру - защитную паутину, способную выдержать взрыв силой в две мегатонны. Солнечные лучи, проходя сквозь этот экран, покрывали стены нежным кружевным узором. Крошечные частички пыли, пленницы мощной системы деионизации купола, простодушно устремлялись вверх широкой спиралью.
Единственное, что он понял из его сбивчивого рассказа, - это что перед смертью Танкадо отдал кольцо. - Танкадо отдал кольцо? - скептически отозвалась Сьюзан.
Все, что она сказала, было правдой еще несколько лет назад, но с тех пор положение в АН Б изменилось. Да и весь мир криптографии изменился. Новые обязанности Сьюзан были засекречены, в том числе и для многих людей в высших эшелонах власти.
Джабба окончательно убедился: директор рискнул и проиграл. Шеф службы обеспечения систем безопасности спустился с подиума подобно грозовой туче, сползающей с горы, и окинул взглядом свою бригаду программистов, отдающих какие-то распоряжения. - Начинаем отключение резервного питания.
The road to overcoming the capitalist mode of production was indicated by the founders of modern socialism, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.