File Name: resistance from bacterial and fungal diseases in plants .zip
Plants play different important roles in the environment such as ecosystem balance and food supplement for animals and humans. Moreover, wild or cultivated plants are considered the powerful biofertilizers for the soil, where the plant debris after death and degradation provides the soil with sufficient organic matters. Accordingly, plant care is a great duty and hard mission, which must be constantly improved.
In the past 10 years, different strategies have been used to produce transgenic plants that are less susceptible to diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. Genes from different organisms, including bacteria, fungi and plants, have been successfully used to develop these strategies. Some strategies have been shown to be effective against different pathogens, whereas others are specific to a single pathogen or even to a single pathovar or race of a given pathogen. In this review, we present the strategies that have been employed to produce transgenic plants less susceptible to bacterial and fungal diseases and which constitute an important area of plant biotechnology. This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution. Rent this article via DeepDyve.
Bacterial diseases can be grouped into four broad categories based on the extent of damage to plant tissue and the symptoms that they cause, which may include vascular wilt, necrosis, soft rot , and tumours. The subsequent multiplication and blockage prevents movement translocation of water and nutrients through the xylem of the host plant. Drooping, wilting, or death of the aerial plant structure may occur; examples include bacterial wilt of sweet corn, alfalfa, tobacco, tomato, and cucurbits e. Pathogens can cause necrosis by secreting a toxin poison. Symptoms include formation of leaf spots, stem blights , or cankers. Soft rot diseases are caused by pathogens that secrete enzymes capable of decomposing cell wall structures, thereby destroying the texture of plant tissue—i.
Plant disease resistance protects plants from pathogens in two ways: by pre-formed structures and chemicals, and by infection-induced responses of the immune system. Disease outcome is determined by the three-way interaction of the pathogen, the plant and the environmental conditions an interaction known as the disease triangle. Defense-activating compounds can move cell-to-cell and systematically through the plant's vascular system. However, plants do not have circulating immune cells , so most cell types exhibit a broad suite of antimicrobial defenses. Plants consistently resist certain pathogens but succumb to others; resistance is usually specific to certain pathogen species or pathogen strains. Plant disease resistance is crucial to the reliable production of food, and it provides significant reductions in agricultural use of land, water, fuel and other inputs.
These diseases are caused by conditions external to the plant, not living agents. They cannot spread from plant to plant, but are very common and should be considered when assessing the health of any plant. Examples of abiotic diseases include nutritional deficiencies, soil compaction, salt injury, ice, and sun scorch Figure These diseases are caused by living organisms. They are called plant pathogens when they infect plants. For the purposes of discussing plant pathology, only plant disease pathogens will be discussed. Pathogens can spread from plant to plant and may infect all types of plant tissue including leaves, shoots, stems, crowns, roots, tubers, fruit, seeds and vascular tissues Figure
Genome editing technologies have progressed rapidly and become one of the most important genetic tools in the implementation of pathogen resistance in plants. As regards the achievement of viral disease resistance, the main strategies employed in model species such as Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana , which include the integration of CRISPR-encoding sequences that target and interfere with the viral genome and the induction of a CRISPR-mediated targeted mutation in the host plant genome, will be discussed. After spending years deciphering and reading genomes, researchers are now editing and rewriting them to develop crop plants resistant to specific pests and pathogens. Plant breeding has been the most successful approach for developing new crop varieties since domestication occurred, making possible major advances in feeding the world and societal development. Crops are susceptible to a large set of pathogens including fungi, bacteria, and viruses, which cause important economic losses FAO, ; the enhancement of plant resistance plays an important role in adjusting crop production to meet global population increases. Approaches to disease control that depend on resistant varieties and agrochemicals are usually highly effective whenever they are deployed. However, due to the high evolutionary potential of many plant pathogens, novel genotypes no longer sensitive to the resistance gene or the phytosanitary product can rapidly emerge via mutation or recombination.
This is the sixth fact sheet in a series of ten designed to provide an overview of key concepts in plant pathology. Plant pathology is the study of plant disease including the reasons why plants get sick and how to control or manage healthy plants. Although considered structurally simple, bacteria are extremely diverse from a metabolic standpoint and are found almost everywhere on Earth in vast numbers—from living in jet fuel and on the rims of volcanoes to thriving in hydrothermal vents deep on the ocean floor. There are both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria.
This page provides an overview of the fungal diseases in vegetable crops. The related tools listed at the end of the page provided detailed information about identification, symptoms, and management of fungal diseases. It is important to have a plant diagnostics laboratory confirm the pathogen causing any diseases in a crop so that the disease can be appropriately managed.
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Advancement in plant transformation techniques enables transferring useful genes for the rational creation of disease-resistant plants. Success has been achieved.Kemal Y. 28.05.2021 at 23:59
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