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Cross Cultural And Intercultural Communication Pdf

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Given the rising expansion of Western multinational companies MNCs to the African contexts, the development of expatriates and local employees has become increasingly important to the human resource management of these MNCs. This paper aims to provide critical lessons on cross-cultural communication competences for Western expatriates working in the sub-Saharan Africa business environment. This paper is a qualitative phenomenology that makes use of lived experiences of senior expatriate staff working in Ghana in the form of direct interviews.


Intercultural communication is a discipline that studies communication across different cultures and social groups , or how culture affects communication. It describes the wide range of communication processes and problems that naturally appear within an organization or social context made up of individuals from different religious, social, ethnic, and educational backgrounds.

In this sense, it seeks to understand how people from different countries and cultures act, communicate and perceive the world around them. Many people in intercultural business communication argue that culture determines how individuals encode messages, what medium they choose for transmitting them, and the way messages are interpreted.

Aside from language, intercultural communication focuses on social attributes, thought patterns, and the cultures of different groups of people. It also involves understanding the different cultures, languages and customs of people from other countries. Learning the tools to facilitate cross-cultural interaction is the subject of cultural agility , a term presently used to design a complex set of competencies required to allow an individual or an organization to perform successfully in cross-cultural situations.

Intercultural communication plays a role in social sciences such as anthropology , cultural studies , linguistics , psychology and communication studies. Intercultural communication is also referred to as the base for international businesses.

Several cross-cultural service providers assist with the development of intercultural communication skills.

Research is a major part of the development of intercultural communication skills. Identity and culture are also studied within the discipline of communication to analyze how globalization influences ways of thinking, beliefs, values, and identity, within and between cultural environments. Intercultural communication scholars approach theory with a dynamic outlook and do not believe culture can be measured nor that cultures share universal attributes. Scholars acknowledge that culture and communication shift along with societal changes and theories should consider the constant shifting and nuances of society.

The study of intercultural communication requires intercultural understanding, which is an ability to understand and value cultural differences. Language is an example of an important cultural component that is linked to intercultural understanding. The following types of theories can be distinguished in different strands: focus on effective outcomes, on accommodation or adaption, on identity negotiation and management, on communication networks ,on acculturation and adjustment.

A study on cultural and intercultural communication came up with three perspectives, which are the indigenous approach, cultural approach, and cross-cultural approach. While indigenous and cultural approaches focal point is emics, cross-cultural approaches are etics. Authentic intercultural communication is possible. A theory that was found in and revisited on explains the importance of truth and intention of getting an understanding.

Furthermore, if strategic intent is hidden, there can't be any authentic intercultural communication. In intercultural communication, there could be miscommunication, and the term is called "misfire. It is difficult to go to the first level due to the speaker's position and the structure.

Forced assimilation was very common in the European colonial empires the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries.

Colonial policies regarding religion conversion, the removal of children, the division of community property, and the shifting of gender roles primarily impacted North and South America, Australia, Africa, and Asia. Voluntary assimilation has also been a part of history dating back to the Spanish Inquisition of the late 14th and 15th centuries, when many Muslims and Jews voluntarily converted to Roman Catholicism as a response to religious prosecution while secretly continuing their original practices.

Another example is when the Europeans moved to the United States. Intercultural communication is competent when it accomplishes the objectives in a manner that is appropriate to the context and relationship. Competent communication is an interaction that is seen as effective in achieving certain rewarding objectives in a way that is also related to the context in which the situation occurs.

Intercultural communication can be linked with identity, which means the competent communicator is the person who can affirm others' avowed identities. As well as goal attainment is also a focus within intercultural competence and it involves the communicator to convey a sense of communication appropriateness and effectiveness in diverse cultural contexts.

Ethnocentrism plays a role in intercultural communication. The capacity to avoid ethnocentrism is the foundation of intercultural communication competence. Ethnocentrism is the inclination to view one's own group as natural and correct, and all others as aberrant. People must be aware that to engage and fix intercultural communication there is no easy solution and there is not only one way to do so.

Listed below are some of the components of intercultural competence. Effective communication depends on the informal understandings among the parties involved that are based on the trust developed between them. When trust exists, there is implicit understanding within communication, cultural differences may be overlooked, and problems can be dealt with more easily.

The meaning of trust and how it is developed and communicated varies across societies. Similarly, some cultures have a greater propensity to be trusting than others. The problems in intercultural communication usually come from problems in message transmission and in reception. In communication between people of the same culture, the person who receives the message interprets it based on values, beliefs, and expectations for behavior similar to those of the person who sent the message.

When this happens, the way the message is interpreted by the receiver is likely to be fairly similar to what the speaker intended. However, when the receiver of the message is a person from a different culture, the receiver uses information from his or her culture to interpret the message.

The message that the receiver interprets may be very different from what the speaker intended. Cross-cultural business communication is very helpful in building cultural intelligence through coaching and training in cross-cultural communication management and facilitation, cross-cultural negotiation, multicultural conflict resolution, customer service, business and organizational communication.

Cross-cultural understanding is not just for incoming expats. Cross-cultural understanding begins with those responsible for the project and reaches those delivering the service or content. The ability to communicate, negotiate and effectively work with people from other cultures is vital to international business.

There is a connection between a person's personality traits and the ability to adapt to the host-country's environment—including the ability to communicate within that environment. Two key personality traits are openness and resilience. Openness includes traits such as tolerance for ambiguity, extroversion and introversion, and open-mindedness. Resilience, on the other hand, includes having an internal locus of control, persistence, tolerance for ambiguity, and resourcefulness.

These factors, combined with the person's cultural and racial identity and level of liberalism, comprise that person's potential for adaptation.

In a business environment, communication is vital, and there could be many instances where there could be miscommunication.

Globalization is a significant factor in intercultural communication and affects business environments. In a business setting, it could be more difficult to communicate due to different ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. Due to globalization, more employees have negative emotions in a business environment.

The reason why one gets negative feelings is because of miscommunication. One study done entails the communication between non-native English speaking and native English speaking people in the United States. Although native English speakers tried to breakdown the miscommunication, non-native English speakers were offended by the terms they used.

There are common conceptualizations of attributes that define collectivistic and individualistic cultures. Operationalizing the perceptions of cultural identities works under the guise that cultures are static and homogeneous, when in fact cultures within nations are multi-ethnic and individuals show high variation in how cultural differences are internalized and expressed. Globalization plays a central role in theorizing for mass communication, media, and cultural communication studies.

D shows us how to navigate through the complexities of cultural differences along with power differences. This model will help you understand who you are as an individual, and how you can better communicate with others that may be different from you. In order to continue living in a globalized society one can use this Praxis model to understand cultural differences based on race, ethnicity, gender, class, sexual orientation, religion, nationality, etc.

Intercultural Communication Praxis Model requires us to respond to someone who comes from a different culture than us, in the most open way we can. The media are influential in what we think of other cultures and what we think about our own selves. However it is important, we educate ourselves, and learn how to communicate with others through Sorrells' Praxis Model.

Inquiry, as the first step of the Intercultural Praxis Model, is an overall interest in learning about and understanding individuals with different cultural backgrounds and world-views, while challenging one's own perceptions.

Positioning is the consideration of one's place in the world compared to others, and how this position might influence both world-views and certain privileges. Dialogue is the turning point of the process during which further understanding of differences and possible tensions develops through experience and engagement with cultures outside of one's own.

Cross-cultural communication endeavours to bring together such relatively unrelated areas as cultural anthropology and established areas of communication. Its core is to establish and understand how people from different cultures communicate with each other. Its charge is to also produce some guidelines with which people from different cultures can better communicate with each other. Cross-cultural communication, as with many scholarly fields, is a combination of many other fields.

These fields include anthropology , cultural studies , psychology and communication. The field has also moved both toward the treatment of interethnic relations, and toward the study of communication strategies used by co-cultural populations, i. The study of languages other than one's own can serve not only to help one understand what we as humans have in common, but also to assist in the understanding of the diversity which underlines our languages' methods of constructing and organizing knowledge.

Such understanding has profound implications with respect to developing a critical awareness of social relationships. Understanding social relationships and the way other cultures work is the groundwork of successful globalization business affairs.

Human experience is culturally relevant, so elements of language are also culturally relevant. Sometimes people can over-generalize or label cultures with stereotypical and subjective characterizations.

Verbal communication consists of messages being sent and received continuously with the speaker and the listener, it is focused on the way messages are portrayed. Verbal communication is based on language and use of expression, the tone in which the sender of the message relays the communication can determine how the message is received and in what context. The way a message is received is dependent on these factors as they give a greater interpretation for the receiver as to what is meant by the message.

By emphasizing a certain phrase with the tone of voice, this indicates that it is important and should be focused more on. Along with these attributes, verbal communication is also accompanied with non-verbal cues.

These cues make the message clearer and give the listener an indication of what way the information should be received. In terms of intercultural communication there are language barriers which are effected by verbal forms of communication. In this instance there is opportunity for miscommunication between two or more parties. Due to different cultures there are different meaning in vocabulary chosen, this allows for a message between the sender and receiver to be misconstrued.

Nonverbal communication refers to gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice, eye contact or lack thereof , body language, posture, and other ways people can communicate without using language. Kinesic behavior is communication through body movement—e. The meaning of such behavior varies across countries. Clothing and the way people dress is used as a form of nonverbal communication. Object language or material culture refers to how people communicate through material artifacts—e.

Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy

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Intercultural communication

Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy is a collection of papers presented at two conferences: the Conference on Intercultural Communication and Diplomacy, and the Conference on Organisational and Professional Cultures and Diplomacy. Topics covered include basic theory, intercultural communication in practice in diplomacy, negotiation and conflict resolution, professional and organisational cultures, and training for diplomats. The papers in this volume approach the topic of intercultural communication and diplomacy from a wide range of cultural perspectives, as the authors originate from 17 different countries and a variety of professional sectors, including foreign services, universities, businesses, and non-governmental organisations. Log In.

Skip to content. Skip to navigation. Please read both of Dr. Stephan Dahl's papers just to page 23 of the "Communication and Culture Transformation" paper, or "Culture acquisition and modification" to get familiar with the different concepts of culture within the field of Intercultural Communication:. Communications and Culture Transformation.

Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Communication

Today, undergraduate students are more familiar with others cultures than ever before because of the media, Internet, local diversity, and their own travels abroad. T his chapter provides a brief discussion of the beginnings of intercultural communication research and explores theories that seek to explain intercultural and cross-cultural communication behavior. Intercultural communication, introduced in Chapter 1 , refers to the effects on communication

Cross Cultural Communication Pdf Cultural fit is one of the biggest stumbling blocks in integrating a merged or acquired organization; in fact, it is one reason such transactions fail, despite the potential business benefits. The goal of cross-cultural communication in health care is to help improve quality and eliminate racial and ethnic health disparities. Communication Across Cultures is an academic reference for university students and interdisciplinary researchers who have no specialised In , Pauwels A. Medical Interpreting and Cross-cultural Communication When healthcare providers and patients do not speak the same language, medical interpreters are called in to help. Module 7: Cultural Differences and Cultural Understanding.

Беккер кивнул. - Так, значит, вы не по поводу моей колонки. - Нет, сэр. Казалось, старик испытал сильнейшее разочарование. Он медленно откинулся на гору подушек.

Ее руки спускались все ниже, забираясь под полотенце. Нуматака почти ничего не замечал. Мысли его были. Он ждал, когда зазвонит прямой телефон, но звонка все не. Кто-то постучал в дверь.

 - Я нашел его в паспорте и хочу разыскать владельца. Сердце Ролдана упало. Выходит, это не клиент.

Эти числа отлично работают при создании шифров, потому что компьютеры не могут угадать их с помощью обычного числового дерева. Соши даже подпрыгнула. - Да. Совершенно верно.

 Вы меня не знаете, молодой человек. Я рисковал всю свою жизнь. Хотите меня испытать.

Он еще не знает, что такое настоящая боль, подумал человек в такси. Девушка вытащила из кармана какой-то маленький предмет и протянула его Беккеру. Тот поднес его к глазам и рассмотрел, затем надел его на палец, достал из кармана пачку купюр и передал девушке.

Он вежливо улыбнулся озабоченной медсестре и вошел в будку. Сняв трубку, набрал номер справочной службы и через тридцать секунд получил номер главного офиса больницы.

Это шантаж. Больше всего похоже на требование выкупа. Слова Сьюзан прозвучали слабым, едва уловимым шепотом: - Это… Энсей Танкадо. Джабба повернулся и изумленно посмотрел на .

Охранник покачал головой. Он долго смотрел ей вслед. И снова покачал головой, когда она скрылась из виду. Дойдя до конца туннеля, Сьюзан уткнулась в круглую сейфовую дверь с надписью СЕКРЕТНО - огромными буквами. Вздохнув, она просунула руку в углубление с цифровым замком и ввела свой личный код из пяти цифр.

 Танкадо посмеялся над нами, - сказал Стратмор. - Вы должны отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ, - напомнила Сьюзан. Стратмор отсутствующе смотрел на стену. - Коммандер.