File Name: causes and consequences of world war 2 .zip
One of its most important legacies was the reordering of the map of Africa roughly as it is today. The First World War was essentially a quarrel between European powers which involved Africa, both directly and indirectly, because at the outbreak of hostilities the greater part of it was ruled by the European belligerents. Mor e than a million African soldiers were involved in these campaigns or campaigns in Europe.
Even more men, as well as wome and children, were recruited, often forcibly, as carriers to support armies whose supplies could not be moved by conventional methods such as road, rail or packanimal. Over soldiers and carriers lost their lives during the war. Many more were wounded and disabled. Liberia declared for the Allies on the entry of the United States into the war in British, French and Italian troops moved to Berbera, Djibuti and Massawa, but the intervention proved unnecessary since shocked Christian nobles overthrew the Emperor in September Muc h less has been written about the impact of the war on Africans and on the administrative structures recently imposed on them by their European conquerors.
How far did these fragile structures withstand the exodus of European administrative personnel, the spectacle of white conqueror fighting white conqueror, the exactions on recently subdued Africans in terms of me n and material, and the widespread revolts that took place on the occasion, though not always directly, or even indirectly as a result of the war? What were the social, political and economic consequences of involving Africans in the European war?
It is with these broad questions that this chapter will be principally concerned. However a brief account of the military campaigns is essential if we are fully to understand the implications of the war for Africa. The immediate consequence for Africa of the declaration of war in Europe was the invasion by the Allies of Germany's colonies.
Neither side had prepared for war in sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed there was short-lived hope that it might be isolated from the war. Governor Doering of Togo suggested to his neighbours in British Gold Coast now Ghana and French Dahomey now Benin that Togo should be neutralized so that the spectacle of Europeans fighting each other would not be witnessed by their African subjects. There was even optimism in some quarters that the articles of the Berlin Act of covering the neutrality of the conventional basin of the Congo would avert war in eastcentral Africa.
The forces in favour of involving Germany's African possessions in the war were, however, more pressing. From the point of view of Britain, given her naval supremacy, the strategy as laid down by the Committee for Imperial Defence was to carry war to her enemy's colonies.
To maintain this naval supremacy, Germany's African communications system and principal ports had to be put out of action. For the Allies, successful campaigns in Germany's colonial possessions might result in their being shared by the victors as spoils of war.
Smuts, in the face of real opposition from Afrikaner irreconcilables, to commit South African forces to the Allied side and invade German South West Africa now Namibia , and later participate in the East African campaign. In Britain, it was considered that the involvement of South Africa and her loyalty would be ensured by the prospect of South West Africa becoming hers.
For the French, invasion of Cameroon would retrieve the territory reluctantly ceded in to Germany in the aftermath of the Agadir crisis.
Even Belgium, which had immediately invoked the perpetual neutrality of the Congo now Zaire under Article X of the Berlin Act, eagerly joined in the invasion of German African territory once her own neutrality had been violated by the Germans, in the hope that successful participation would give her a bargaining position in the eventual peace settlement. Germany's colonies were not easily defensible given Allied naval supremacy and her much smaller colonial forces. But once it was clear that quick victory would not be achieved, it was perceived that protracted campaigns in Africa would tie down Allied colonial troops who might otherwise be sent to the European front.
This strategy was brilliantly pursued by General P. The campaigns in Africa can be divided into two distinct phases. During the first, which lasted only a few weeks, the Allies were concerned to knock out Germany's offensive capability and ensure that her fleetc ould not use her African ports.
In German East Africa, British cruisers bombarded Dar es Salaam and Tanga in August, and though neither port was taken until later in the war, they could not be used by German warships. In Egypt, on the entry of Turkey into the war on Germany's side, the British defences of the Suez Canal were strengthened and a Turkish expedition repulsed in February Thereafter Egypt served as the major base for Britain's operations against Turkey and her Middle Eastern provinces, and became the fulcrum of British power in Africa and the Middle East for the next three decades.
The campaigns of the first phase of the war in Africa were vital to its global strategy. The campaigns of the second phase, with the exception of those mounted from Egypt against the Turkish empire, were of marginal significance to the outcome of the world struggle.
Nevertheless the Allies were determined to conquer the German colonies both to prevent them being used as bases for the subversion of their often tenuous authority in their own colonies, and to share them among themselves in the event of an overall Allied victory. Thus once the South African government had put down the Afrikaner rebellion which had received support from the Germans in South West Africa, it mounted an invasion of the territory which took six months to complete.
The South West Africa campaign was the only one in which African troops were not involved, since the Union generals were reluctant to arm their African population, while the Germans dared not, after having so brutally put down the Herero and Nama risings. The protracted Cameroon campaign was largely fought by African troops. Despite their superiority in numbers, the French, British and Belgian allies took over fifteen months to complete their conquest of the territory.
Right up to the end of hostilities he remained undefeated, leading his bedraggled column through Portuguese East Africa now Mozambique and then on its last march into Northern Rhodesia now Zambia where he learnt of the armistice in Europe. At a conservative estimate, some Allied troops were engaged by von LettowVorbeck's force which never exceeded a strength of 15 As in Cameroon, African troops proved vital to both sides, many of them fighting with great bravery, and proving much more effective fighterst han the white South African troops who were decimated by disease.
At times the ration for Nigerian foot soldiers was half-a-pound of rice a day with nothing to go with it. The carriers suffered particular hardships and it was estimated that at least 45 died from disease in the campaign. The war saw a large-scale exodus of European administrative and commercial personnel from the Allied colonies in Africa, as they left for the Western Front or enlisted in locally based regiments for campaigns elsewhere in Africa.
In some parts the European presence, already thinly spread, was diminished by more than half. In Northern Nigeria, many political officers on secondment from the army were recalled to their regiments while others voluntarily enlisted, with the result that Northern Nigeria was denuded of administrators.
Some divisions in Northern Nigeria, like Borgu, were without any European administrator for much of the war. In French Black Africa there was general mobilization of Europeans of military age, while in British East Africa, Europeans were registered for war work. In some parts, particularly the countryside, it was rumoured that the white man was leaving for ever. In Morocco, where the Resident-General, Louis Lyautey, had to withdraw so many of his troops for the European front, German prisoners of war were used on public works to persuade the Moroccans that the French were winning the war.
The result of this exodus was a slowdown, if not a complete stoppage, of many essential services manned by Europeans. In certain instances Africans were specially trained, as in Senegal, to fill the vacancies thus created. In British West Africa, others jobs hitherto reserved for whites were filled by educated Africans which, as Richard Rathbone has pointed out, goes some way towards explaining the loyalty of the elites during the war. In French West Africa, the governor-general complained that the British, who were not subjected to general mobilization in their colonies, were taking advantage of the fact that their French allies were, by filling the trading vacuum left by the departure of French commercial agents to the front.
Only in Egypt was there a net increase in the European presence, since there was an enormous influx of British troops using Egypt as a base for the Allied offensive in the Middle East. From the African point of view, perhaps even more remarkable than the apparent exodus of Europeans was the spectacle of white people fighting each other, a thing they had never done during the colonial occupation. What is more they encouraged their subjects in uniform to kill the 'enemy' white man, who hitherto had belonged to a clan who, by virtue of trie colour of his skin, was held to be sacrosanct and desecration of whose person had hitherto been visited with the direst retribution.
Except in the German South West African campaign, African troops were a major factor in the Allied successes in their African campaigns. African troops were called on during the war not only to fight on African soil, but also to reinforce European armies on the Western and Middle Eastern fronts. Further, they were instrumental in putting down the various revolts against colonial authority, just as they had been instrumental in the European conquest of Africa.
Over a million troops were actually recruited during the war to supplement the generally small forces maintained by the colonial authorities. Only France had substantial armies on the ground in her various African colonies on the outbreak of war and though subsequently Germany was accused of militarizing her colonies, it was really France alone against whom this accusation could be levelled with accuracy.
Further, North Africans were recruited to work at factory benches vacated by Frenchmen conscripted into the army. The subsequent voluntary migration of Algerian labour to France has its origin in the First World War. All in all over 2. Recruits for both fighting and carrier service were raised by three methods. The first was on a purely volunteer basis where Africans offered their services freely without any outside pressure.
There is no doubt that in most African countries there were volunteers for the army who knew exactly what enlistment entailed. The Senegalese citoyens of the Four Communes of Senegal were quite prepared to accept the full obligations of compulsory military service exacted from Metropolitan Frenchmen if it would guarantee their own status as citizens.
And to this end their Deputy, Blaise Diagne, secured the passage of a Law of 29 September which stated that 'the natives of the communes de plein exercice of Senegal are and remain French citizens as provided for by the law of 15 October A great deal of recruitment was undertaken through chiefs who were expected to deliver up the numbers required of them by the political officers. In some areas they had no difficulty in obtaining genuine volunteers; in others, men were impressed by the chiefs and presented to the political officers as volunteers.
Much of the unpopularity of chiefs in Northern Rhodesia after the war can be attributed to their role in recruitment of soldiers and carriers. Large numbers of soldiers and carriers, however, were formally conscripted.
In French Black Africa, a Decree of aimed at creating a permanent black army made military service for four years compulsory for all African males between the ages of 20 and The aim was to replace garrison troops in Algeria with black African troops so that the former would be available for service in Europe in the eventuality of war. If such a war were prolonged, General Mangin wrote, 'Our African forces would constitute an almost indefinite reserve, the source of which is beyond the reach of the adversary.
Chiefs were given quotas of men tof ill,a nd rounded up strangers and former slaves to avoid enlisting their immediate dependants or kinsmen.
Since births were not registered, many men above and below military age were recruited. But, as we shall see, the recruitment campaign provoked widespread revolts and the insurgent areas were impossible to recruit in.
Desperate for more men and in the hope that an African of high standing might succeed where Frenchmen had not, the French Government resorted to the appointment in of Blaise Diagne as High Commissioner for the Recruitment of Black Troops. Set the target of recruiting men, his teams actually enlisted , few of whom, however, saw the front since the war ended in November Compulsory recruitment was also used to raise troops and carriers in British East Africa, under the compulsory service order of , which made all males aged between 18 and 45 liable for military service.
This was extended to the Uganda Protectorate in April Forced recruitment of porters in all districts in Northern Rhodesia meant that for a large part of the war over a third of the adult males of the territory were involved in carrier service. After , the heavy demands of the Syrian front forced the British Protectorate government in Egypt to introduce conscription and requisition of animals despite its earlier promise that it would bear the full burden of the war.
Village 'umdas 'paid off old scores as they shepherded their enemies into the arms of the recruiting agents or swept animals into the insatiable Syrian caravan'. In Algeria, Tunisia and even Morocco, which was still being conquered, colonial subjects were pressed into the war. Over colonial soldiers from all over Africa are estimated to have served in the French army during the war, most of them compulsorily recruited. The Belgians in the Congo impressed up to porters during the East African campaign.
The slave trade at its height never reached a tenth of the numbers involved in any one year. While the war directly took an enormous toll in dead and wounded in Africa, it further accounted for innumerable indirect deaths in the Africawide influenza epidemic of whose spread was facilitated by the movement of troops and carriers returning home.
As a result the Allied powers had to divert scarce military resources, needed for fighting the Germans in Africa as well as on the Western Front, to dealing with local revolts. So scarce were these resources, and so widespread the revolts in certain areas such as French West Africa and Libya that the reimposition of European control over the revolted areas had to be delayed until troops became available.
In Morocco Lyautey, its conquistador, feared that metropolitan instructions to return half his troops to France and withdraw to the Atlantic coast might lead to revolt.
Though he had to release the men, he did not withdraw and managed to avert challenge to his authority.
The first world war itself sowed the seeds for Second World War, primarily because of the humiliating Treaty of Versailles. Alex Andrews George is a mentor, author, and entrepreneur. He is the author of many best-seller books like 'Important Judgments that transformed India' and 'Important Acts that transformed India'. Your email address will not be published. The provision for disarming Germany.
Pinpointing the causes of a vast, global event like the Second World War is a challenging task for the historian. Events—especially enormous, multifaceted events—have multiple causes and multiple inputs. A proximate cause is an incident that appears to directly trigger an event, as the election of Abraham Lincoln in November and the shelling of Fort Sumter led to the outbreak of the Civil War. In the case of the Civil War, for example, historians often point to the growing sectional polarization that divided the nation in the s and s, the national debate over the future of slavery, and the divergent economic paths that distinguished North and South during the antebellum period. In the case of the Second World War, historians generally point to a series of conditions that helped contribute to its outbreak. The unbalanced Treaty of Versailles which forced a crippling peace on Germany to end the First World War and the global depression that enveloped the world during the s which led to particularly desperate conditions in many European nations as well as the United States usually emerge as two of the most crucial. Those conditions formed the background against which Adolf Hitler could ascend to the position of German Chancellor in the s.
One of its most important legacies was the reordering of the map of Africa roughly as it is today. The First World War was essentially a quarrel between European powers which involved Africa, both directly and indirectly, because at the outbreak of hostilities the greater part of it was ruled by the European belligerents. Mor e than a million African soldiers were involved in these campaigns or campaigns in Europe. Even more men, as well as wome and children, were recruited, often forcibly, as carriers to support armies whose supplies could not be moved by conventional methods such as road, rail or packanimal. Over soldiers and carriers lost their lives during the war.
Historians from many countries have given considerable attention to studying and understanding the causes of World War II , a global war from to that was the deadliest conflict in human history. The immediate precipitating event was the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany on September 1, , and the subsequent declarations of war on Germany made by Britain and France , but many other prior events have been suggested as ultimate causes. Primary themes in historical analysis of the war's origins include the political takeover of Germany in by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party ; Japanese militarism against China , which led to the Second Sino-Japanese War ; Italian aggression against Ethiopia , which led to the Second Italo-Ethiopian War ; and Germany's initial success in negotiating a neutrality pact with the Soviet Union to divide territorial control of Eastern Europe between them.
His murder catapulted into a war across Europe that lasted until Thanks to new military technologies and the horrors of trench warfare, World War I saw unprecedented levels of carnage and destruction. By the time the war was over and the Allied Powers claimed victory, more than 16 million people—soldiers and civilians alike—were dead.
Hitler dragged Europe back into war in The railway carriage in which the armistice was signed was symbolically used again in when the French succumbed to German occupation. Some of the high-profile agitators at this time were left-wing Jews, which fuelled the conspiracy theory of a Jewish Bolshevik disloyalty that later gained so much traction as Hitler laid the psychological groundwork in preparing Germany for another war. The devastating experience of the First World War left the victorious nations and their people desperate to avoid a repeat. At the insistence of the French, the terms of the Versailles Treaty were punitive in the extreme and left Germany destitute and its people feeling victimised.
We are republishing the lecture today ahead of the 80 th anniversary of the outbreak of the war on September 1. Given the massive scale of the cataclysm that unfolded between and , it is simplistic, even absurd, to seek the causes of the war primarily in the diplomatic conflicts that led up to the hostilities—such as the dispute over the Danzig Corridor—apart from their broader historical context. Any consideration of the causes of World War II must proceed from the fact that the development of global military conflict between and followed by only twenty-five years the first global military conflict, which occurred between and Another way of looking at it is that within the space of just thirty-one years, two catastrophic global wars were fought.
World War II , also called Second World War , conflict that involved virtually every part of the world during the years — The war was in many respects a continuation, after an uneasy year hiatus , of the disputes left unsettled by World War I. The 40,,—50,, deaths incurred in World War II make it the bloodiest conflict, as well as the largest war, in history. Great Britain and France responded by declaring war on Germany on September 3. The war between the U.
The destructive and devastating war that took place from 1 st September to 12 th September is known as Second World War. There were great changes that occurred after the war. This note has information about the consequences of the second world war. Some of them are:. About 12 million soldiers were killed and 25 million civilians were killed because of hunger, diseases, etc.
There are many causes of the war and some of them go back to the end of the First World War. The end of World War I and the peace that followed in changed the face of Europe and the borders of countries completely. New nations emerged.
There are many different cause for World War II. The Treaty of Versailles was a complete and almost a total failure due to the distaste of many of the allied powers. Here we have Japanese militarism.
Он знал, что этого времени у него. Сзади его нагоняло такси. Он смотрел на приближающиеся огни центра города и молил Бога, чтобы он дал ему добраться туда живым.
У тебя ужасный вид. Сьюзан подавила поднимающуюся волну страха. В нескольких метрах от нее ярко светился экран Хейла.
К человеку в моем положении часто приходят с… ну, вы понимаете. - Да, мистер Клушар, конечно, понимаю. Это цена, которую приходится платить за известность. - Действительно.
У меня есть кое-что для. Она зажмурилась. - Попробую угадать. Безвкусное золотое кольцо с надписью по-латыни.
На ней стояли пустая бутылка из-под шампанского, два бокала… и лежала записка. Протерев глаза, она натянула на плечи одеяло и прочла: Моя драгоценная Сьюзан. Я люблю .
Не упусти. - Спасибо, шеф. Голос шефа из смешливого вдруг стал жестким: - Сьюзан, я звоню потому, что ты нужна мне. Срочно. Она попыталась собраться с мыслями.
Он принял решение. Под визг покрышек, в снопе искр Беккер резко свернул вправо и съехал с дороги. Колеса мотоцикла подпрыгнули, ударившись о бетонное ограждение, так что он едва сумел сохранить равновесие.
Еще раз убедившись, что Сьюзан и коммандер поглощены беседой, Хейл аккуратно нажал пять клавиш на клавиатуре ее компьютера, и через секунду монитор вернулся к жизни. - Порядок, - усмехнулся .
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The Second World War was a war for democracy. Causes Of World War Ii. 1. Treaty of Versailles: An attempt was made at Paris Peace conference in to.