File Name: difference between literary criticism and literary theory .zip
Literary criticism or literary studies is the study, evaluation , and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory , which is the philosophical discussion of literature's goals and methods. Though the two activities are closely related, literary critics are not always, and have not always been, theorists.
Whether or not literary criticism should be considered a separate field of inquiry from literary theory , or conversely from book reviewing, is a matter of some controversy. For example, the Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism  draws no distinction between literary theory and literary criticism, and almost always uses the terms together to describe the same concept. Some critics consider literary criticism a practical application of literary theory, because criticism always deals directly with particular literary works, while theory may be more general or abstract.
Literary criticism is often published in essay or book form. Literary criticism is thought to have existed as far back as the classical period. Poetics developed for the first time the concepts of mimesis and catharsis , which are still crucial in literary studies.
Plato 's attacks on poetry as imitative, secondary, and false were formative as well. The Sanskrit Natya Shastra includes literary criticism on ancient Indian literature and Sanskrit drama. Later classical and medieval criticism often focused on religious texts, and the several long religious traditions of hermeneutics and textual exegesis have had a profound influence on the study of secular texts.
This was particularly the case for the literary traditions of the three Abrahamic religions : Jewish literature , Christian literature and Islamic literature. Literary criticism was also employed in other forms of medieval Arabic literature and Arabic poetry from the 9th century, notably by Al-Jahiz in his al-Bayan wa-'l-tabyin and al-Hayawan , and by Abdullah ibn al-Mu'tazz in his Kitab al-Badi.
The literary criticism of the Renaissance developed classical ideas of unity of form and content into literary neoclassicism , proclaiming literature as central to culture , entrusting the poet and the author with preservation of a long literary tradition. The birth of Renaissance criticism was in , with the recovery of classic texts, most notably, Giorgio Valla 's Latin translation of Aristotle 's Poetics. The work of Aristotle, especially Poetics , was the most important influence upon literary criticism until the late eighteenth century.
Lodovico Castelvetro was one of the most influential Renaissance critics who wrote commentaries on Aristotle's Poetics in In the Enlightenment period s to s , literary criticism became more popular.
During this time period literacy rates started to rise in the public;  no longer was reading exclusive for the wealthy or scholarly. With the rise of the literate public, the swiftness of printing and commercialization of literature, criticism arose too. The commercialization of literature and its mass production had its downside. The emergent literary market, which was expected to educate the public and keep them away from superstition and prejudice, increasingly diverged from the idealistic control of the Enlightenment theoreticians so that the business of Enlightenment became a business with the Enlightenment.
The British Romantic movement of the early nineteenth century introduced new aesthetic ideas to literary studies, including the idea that the object of literature need not always be beautiful, noble, or perfect, but that literature itself could elevate a common subject to the level of the sublime.
German Romanticism , which followed closely after the late development of German classicism , emphasized an aesthetic of fragmentation that can appear startlingly modern to the reader of English literature, and valued Witz — that is, "wit" or "humor" of a certain sort — more highly than the serious Anglophone Romanticism.
The late nineteenth century brought renown to authors known more for their literary criticism than for their own literary work, such as Matthew Arnold. However important all of these aesthetic movements were as antecedents, current ideas about literary criticism derive almost entirely from the new direction taken in the early twentieth century.
Early in the century the school of criticism known as Russian Formalism , and slightly later the New Criticism in Britain and in the United States, came to dominate the study and discussion of literature, in the English-speaking world.
Both schools emphasized the close reading of texts, elevating it far above generalizing discussion and speculation about either authorial intention to say nothing of the author's psychology or biography, which became almost taboo subjects or reader response.
This emphasis on form and precise attention to "the words themselves" has persisted, after the decline of these critical doctrines themselves.
In Northrop Frye published the influential Anatomy of Criticism. In his works Frye noted that some critics tend to embrace an ideology , and to judge literary pieces on the basis of their adherence to such ideology. This has been a highly influential viewpoint among modern conservative thinkers.
Michael Jones, for example, argues in his Degenerate Moderns that Stanley Fish was influenced by his own adulterous affairs to reject classic literature that condemned adultery. In the British and American literary establishment, the New Criticism was more or less dominant until the late s. Around that time Anglo-American university literature departments began to witness a rise of a more explicitly philosophical literary theory , influenced by structuralism , then post-structuralism , and other kinds of Continental philosophy.
It continued until the mids, when interest in "theory" peaked. Many later critics, though undoubtedly still influenced by theoretical work, have been comfortable simply interpreting literature rather than writing explicitly about methodology and philosophical presumptions.
Related to other forms of literary criticism, the history of the book is a field of interdisciplinary inquiry drawing on the methods of bibliography , cultural history , history of literature , and media theory. Principally concerned with the production, circulation, and reception of texts and their material forms, book history seeks to connect forms of textuality with their material aspects. Among the issues within the history of literature with which book history can be seen to intersect are: the development of authorship as a profession, the formation of reading audiences, the constraints of censorship and copyright, and the economics of literary form.
Today, approaches based in literary theory and continental philosophy largely coexist in university literature departments, while conventional methods, some informed by the New Critics , also remain active.
Disagreements over the goals and methods of literary criticism, which characterized both sides taken by critics during the "rise" of theory, have declined. Many critics feel that they now have a great plurality of methods and approaches from which to choose. Ecocritics have drawn connections between literature and the natural sciences.
Darwinian literary studies studies literature in the context of evolutionary influences on human nature. And postcritique has sought to develop new ways of reading and responding to literary texts that go beyond the interpretive methods of critique. Many literary critics also work in film criticism or media studies. Some write intellectual history ; others bring the results and methods of social history to bear on reading literature.
The value of extensive literary analysis has been questioned by several prominent artists. Vladimir Nabokov once wrote that good readers do not read books, and particularly those which are considered to be literary masterpieces, "for the academic purpose of indulging in generalizations". He believes that critics are not so well-known and praised, to his disappointment, and that literary criticism is declining in its value because of the manner the general audience is directing it towards that underappreciated state.
Joyce the modernist writer's grandson said, "If my grandfather was here, he would have died laughing Dubliners and A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man can be picked up, read, and enjoyed by virtually anybody without scholarly guides, theories, and intricate explanations, as can Ulysses , if you forget about all the hue and cry.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. August Hirsch, Jr. Listen to this article 8 minutes. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved Gelder, G. Leiden: Brill Publishers.
The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The Library: An Illustrated History. New York: Skyhorse. Lewisburg [Pa. A History of German Literary Criticism: Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Michael San Francisco: Ignatius Press. OUP Academic. L'Envoi p. Eagleton, Terry ed. The Cambridge Quarterly. Max June 19, The New Yorker. Literary criticism. Archetypal criticism Biographical criticism Chicago school Cultural materialism Darwinian criticism Deconstruction Descriptive poetics Ecocriticism Feminist criticism Formalism Geocriticism Marxist criticism New Criticism New historicism Postcolonial criticism Postcritique Psychoanalytic criticism Reader-response criticism Russian formalism Semiotic criticism Sociological criticism Source criticism Thing theory.
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Literary theory is the systematic study of the nature of literature and of the methods for literary analysis. The practice of literary theory became a profession in the 20th century, but it has historical roots that run as far back as ancient Greece Aristotle 's Poetics is an often cited early example , ancient India Bharata Muni 's Natya Shastra , ancient Rome Longinus 's On the Sublime and medieval Iraq Al-Jahiz 's al-Bayan wa-'l-tabyin and al-Hayawan , and ibn al-Mu'tazz 's Kitab al-Badi. The theory and criticism of literature are tied to the history of literature. However, the modern sense of "literary theory" only dates to approximately the s when the structuralist linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure began to strongly influence English language literary criticism. In the academic world of the United Kingdom and the United States, literary theory was at its most popular from the late s when its influence was beginning to spread outward from universities such as Johns Hopkins , Yale , and Cornell through the s by which time it was taught nearly everywhere in some form. By the early s, the popularity of "theory" as a subject of interest by itself was declining slightly along with job openings for pure "theorists" even as the texts of literary theory were incorporated into the study of almost all literature.
The very first thing one should know before getting into the details of this idea, what is the difference between literary criticism and literary theory, is that there is not only one difference between these two concepts but many. However, it is equally true that theory and criticism, in the literary context, are two things that are very much related. Literary theory is the idea that controls or guides the action known as literary criticism. However, there are certain differences between these two concepts that we must know. In this article, I will focus on some of the key differences between literary theory and literary criticism. Moreover, if you are still unsure about the very definition of literary theory, you should read the introductory article on English Literature Education platform — what is literary theory?
By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of a work of literature but to the theories that reveal what literature can mean. Literary theory is a description of the underlying principles, one might say the tools, by which we attempt to understand literature. All literary interpretation draws on a basis in theory but can serve as a justification for very different kinds of critical activity. It is literary theory that formulates the relationship between author and work; literary theory develops the significance of race, class, and gender for literary study, both from the standpoint of the biography of the author and an analysis of their thematic presence within texts. Literary theory offers varying approaches for understanding the role of historical context in interpretation as well as the relevance of linguistic and unconscious elements of the text.
Theory Before we dive into the various divisions of literary studies that comprise much of what we tend to think of as theory, it will be most useful, perhaps even necessary, to clear up a very common confusion that many students who are new to theory have about the difference between literary theory and literary criticism. I will admit that this distinction was lost on me until I gained a sharper idea of what theory really was, and that the way literary studies positions both of them does not help. In your average literature class, especially one beyond the first and second year, the professor will be delivering content based most directly on the literary works you will all be reading. Along with their own original insights, the professor will bring appropriate literary criticism to bear on the work, as well as introducing a theoretical approach, or several, or setting the criticism in its theoretical context.
Literary theory is the body of ideas and methods we use in the practical reading of literature. By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of a work of literature but to the theories that reveal what literature can mean. All literary interpretation draws on a basis in theory but can serve as a justification for very different kinds of critical activity.
Literary criticism and literary theory are two important terms that we encounter in literary studies. There are varying views on the difference between literary criticism and literary theory; some scholars use these two terms to describe the same concept whereas some other scholars consider literary criticism as the practical application of the literary theories. In this article, we are considering the latter perspective.
Comments welcome, e-mail me at jlye brocku. The word 'criticism' has ordinary-use negative connotations, and to an extent that is right: for literary criticism is part of the disciplining of discourse generally and of what is considered literature in particular. One patrols the boundaries of good writing, admitting or excluding, determining what should be thought about a text, and why, what personal and cultural value should be placed on it. Judgments of value are not simple, however. They require that one consider what constitutes value, what the personal and social value of literature is, what the value of 'the aesthetic' is.
Literary criticism or literary studies is the study, evaluation , and interpretation of literature. Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory , which is the philosophical discussion of literature's goals and methods. Though the two activities are closely related, literary critics are not always, and have not always been, theorists. Whether or not literary criticism should be considered a separate field of inquiry from literary theory , or conversely from book reviewing, is a matter of some controversy. For example, the Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism  draws no distinction between literary theory and literary criticism, and almost always uses the terms together to describe the same concept.
Он был уверен, что чрезмерный нажим не приведет ни к чему хорошему. - Расслабьтесь, мистер Беккер. Если будет ошибка, мы попробуем снова, пока не добьемся успеха. - Плохой совет, мистер Беккер, - огрызнулся Джабба. - Нужно сразу быть точным.
Да. Первая неделя оказалась последней. Солнечный удар и инфаркт. Бедолага.
Беккер оглянулся. Убийца целился, высунувшись из окна. Беккер вильнул в сторону, и тут же боковое зеркало превратилось в осколки. Он почувствовал, как этот удар передался на руль, и плотнее прижался к мотоциклу. Боже всевышний.
Кроме того, она понимала, что времени почти не оставалось. Стратмор сидел наверху с береттой в руке. Он перечитал свою записку и положил на пол возле .
Беги, Сьюзан. Открой дверцу. Спасайся. Она открыла глаза, словно надеясь увидеть его лицо, его лучистые зеленые глаза и задорную улыбку, и вновь перед ней всплыли буквы от А до Z. Шифр!.
Рассудок говорил ей, что надо бежать, но Дэвид мертвой тяжестью не давал ей сдвинуться с места. Ей казалось, что она слышит его голос, зовущий ее, заставляющий спасаться бегством, но куда ей бежать. Шифровалка превратилась в наглухо закрытую гробницу. Но это теперь не имело никакого значения, мысль о смерти ее не пугала.
Я отдал лучшие годы жизни своей стране и исполнению своего долга. А как же любовь. Он слишком долго обделял. И ради. Чтобы увидеть, как какой-то молодой профессор украл его мечту.
Это невозможно. Я никогда не распечатываю свои мозговые штурмы. - Я знаю. Я считываю их с вашего компьютера.
Коммандер спас ей жизнь. Стоя в темноте, она испытывала чувство огромного облегчения, смешанного, конечно же, с ощущением вины: агенты безопасности приближаются. Она глупейшим образом попала в ловушку, расставленную Хейлом, и Хейл сумел использовать ее против Стратмора.
is the body of ideas and methods we use.