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Base Station And Mobile Station Antennas Pdf

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What is a base station and wireless network?

This document will provide an insight on how to roughly estimate the coverage and capacity of the mobile networks based on the Fairwaves architecture and equipment. Please be advised, that more precise estimation is possible only with detailed information about the terrain and enviromental conditions. You may find the results of estimations in the tables below.

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This was based on a number of human epidemiology studies on increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma. Based on further human epidemiology studies and animal studies, the evidence on RF radiation carcinogenesis has increased since In previous measurement studies, it has been indicated that high environmental RF radiation levels are present in certain areas of Stockholm Sweden, including in one apartment.

Field spatial distribution measurements were performed in the previously measured apartment in Stockholm, which exhibited high RF radiation from nearby base stations. For comparison, a measurement was made in a low exposure apartment in Stockholm.

Here, the maximum indoor field 0. The maximum outdoor field of 0. The minimum field of 0. Good mobile phone reception was achieved in both apartments. Therefore, installation of base stations to risky places cannot be justified using the good reception requirement argument. Public exposure to radiofrequency RF electromagnetic fields EMF in today's cities may be caused by a number of sources, including mobile phone base stations, TV and radio towers, wireless local area networks WLAN , emergency services radio network, RF-identification systems, microwave ovens, anti-theft gates etc.

Additionally, individual's exposure may be significantly elevated by personal usage of mobile and cordless phones, 2-way radios, WLAN, Bluetooth and other wireless devices. In this study we have focused on the exposure from mobile phone base station antennas. Exposure in two apartments positioned close to mobile phone base station antennas is measured in detail.

Developments in telecommunications technologies have led to widespread use of mobile devices connected to the network in constantly increasing loads. Within a year total RF exposure levels in all investigated outdoor locations combined raised The increase in exposure was most notably observed in outdoor locations due to mobile phone base stations 1. In many European countries on-site RF exposure measurements have been conducted since the 's. Most studies have focused on the mobile communications' frequency bands.

Based on the personal exposure measurements in the EU, the mean RF is generally from 0. RF field exposure literature in Europe was reviewed, comparing indoor levels to outdoor levels 3. The mean RF exposure from spot measurements in homes was determined to be 0. In outdoor studies the exposure levels rarely exceeded 1. A finding of the systematic review was that there was no distinct difference in exposure levels between European countries.

However, studies done by different researchers across the Europe have used different procedures limiting the comparability between studies 3. RF levels are exponentially higher when located closer to the mobile phone base station antenna.

Therefore, proper safety measures must be applied when protecting public from the excess RF radiation. One of the main safety principles is creating sufficient distance between the public and the RF sources. This requirement may not be met in certain housing conditions.

Mobile phone base stations installed on rooftops may become very close to people in nearby apartments. RF field exposure from a mobile phone base station antenna, located at the rooftop showed that allowable maximum safety levels were exceeded when being closer than 30 m to the base station antenna 4.

With the increasing distance, the RF power density is increasingly affected by the landscape topography, buildings, and trees that induce reflection and absorption. Also, RF power density depends on the numbers of channels in use by the base station antenna, the number of time intervals used and other mobile communication specific factors.

The base station's maximum RF level varies across the day, which is an indicator of the mobile communications' service load. Also, RF power density distribution is greatly determined by the antenna's directional pattern.

Values were measured highest in the balconies within the main radiation lobe of the antenna 4. We have previously reported results from our measurements of RF radiation levels at certain places in Stockholm, Sweden such as at the Central Railway station 5 , the Old Town 6 , and in the City 7. Most of the radiation was downlink. Of special concern is our results of measurements in a Stockholm apartment for everyday living purposes 9. Two groups of base stations are located close to the apartment.

Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and in 3 of 4 bedrooms. The aim of this study was to further investigate radiation levels in the high exposure apartment 9 and to compare it with a low exposure apartment showing RF E-field distribution. This was a measurement study with no involvement of test persons.

Thus, no ethical permission was needed. In the present study RF field levels were investigated in two apartments near mobile phone base station antennas.

One of the apartments represented a high exposure living area, while the other was of low exposure area. Both of the apartments were near to mobile phone base stations but located at different city districts in Stockholm, Sweden. The locations of the base stations close to the apartment with high RF radiation exposure are shown in Figs.

A view from the high exposure apartment's balcony, this was one of the highest exposure areas in the apartment's main floor with the RF field topping at 5. RF, radiofrequency. View to the low exposure apartment rectangle. Mobile phone base station antennas are visible on the neighboring building circled ; the highest RF exposure level was on the balcony, which had the line of sight to both of the antennas.

However due to the elevation difference, the balcony had highest electric field only 0. Rectangle, low exposure apartment; circle, neighboring building. The high exposure apartment's outdoor areas were positioned close to the mobile phone base station antennas, being as close as 6 m. The low exposure apartment's balcony was about 40 m away from the base station antennas, since these were installed on the neighboring building and significantly higher on the roof. Field spatial distribution measurements were conducted in the investigated apartments.

The following analyses bring forth the low and high exposure determinant factors. RF electric field was measured at each room of the apartments. Depending on the room size, the room was divided into two to ten quadrants smaller imaginary squares. At each quadrant a spot measurement was conducted.

At each spot the field was measured with slow circular movements to cover the area of about 1 m 2 at heights of 0. The measurements were conducted on a working day during business hours afternoon in January Field perturbation by the measurer was minimized by distancing the meter from the body-the meter was held at arm's length, with the extending probe outward.

The measurements area was therefore at about 0. Spot distance to mobile phone base station antenna was measured by targeting the closest antenna element. The Narda NBM-series meter is capable of time and spatial averaging and determining the maximum level during the period monitored.

Narda EF probe is intended by the manufacturer for base station measurements and has a frequency range from kHz to 3 GHz. Mobile communications' service coverage reception level was confirmed using an Android mobile phone, showing service coverage in decibel milliwatts dBm.

In the present study, measurement data are presented both in tables and visual views. Spatial distribution of the RF levels is presented in a heat map view. Heat map is possible only by a volume of spatially scattered spot measurements. Heat map is also seen by some other authors as a way to communicate the measurements data in a comprehensible way to the public The measurement data, specifically average spot measurement values, were entered to the contour map software 3DFIELD ver.

Field distribution maps were based on the spot measurements using 1 min time averaging. The data was analyzed using the spreadsheet software Microsoft Excel , calculating mean, median, minimum and maximum for the measured areas.

The field spatial distribution measurements conducted at the apartments in Stockholm show great variation in the RF field levels. As illustrated in Figs.

Outdoor areas i. High exposure levels were encountered also on the 6th floor balcony with a direct line of sight to the mobile phone base station antenna at Since the base station antenna was not aimed at the aforementioned area, hence even higher exposure conditions are avoided.

The lowest exposure area is in the middle of the apartment 0. RF field in the low exposure apartment is illustrated in Fig. The field distribution in low exposure apartment shows much less variation in amplitude, as the field is several times lower when compared to the high exposure apartment.

The maximum indoor field 0. Maximum outdoor field of 0. Spot measurements resulted both in time averaged and maximum RF field levels. In Fig. For median RF electric field the difference is more than four times; based on spot measurements maximum readings over 1-min period.

Whiskers plot depicts from bottom up minimum, first quartile, median, third quartile and maximum of the sample containing all the spot measurement values in the area. Comparison was also made in both apartments between the outdoor area staying at the balcony and the corresponding adjacent room area, which had access to the balcony.

There was about a five-fold difference in mean indoor exposure levels and about a six-fold difference in mean outdoor exposure levels between the apartments. Considering maximum readings, the outdoor exposure difference was eight-fold. The maximum indoor RF field was 0.

Maximum reading at the balcony outside the low exposure apartment was 0. Statistics for the low and high exposure apartment. Mean, median and minimum values are based on the average of 1 min spot measurements calculated based on 1 min temporal monitoring sample. The maximum is based on the same spot measurements maximum registered RF level.

Mean, median and minimum values are based on the average of 1 min spot measurements calculated based on 1 min temporal sample monitoring.

A Compact MultiBand and Dual-Polarized Mobile Base-Station Antenna Using Optimal Array Structure

Article Content. Chapter 1 General Provisions. The terms in the Regulations are defined as follows: 1. Mobile communications: communications that use radio terminal equipment via the mobile communications network. Mobile communications system: the communications system composed of equipment such as mobile communications switches, mobile stations, base stations, network and accounting administration equipment. Mobile communications network: the communications network composed of the mobile communications system and telecommunications machines and lines. Mobile communications network business: the business announced by the Executive Yuan in accordance with Paragraph 6, Article 12 of the Act.

This paper introduces a multiband base-station antenna to provide multiple communications services. There is growing need for multiband base-station antennas for mobile communications to serve existing 2nd and 3rd generation systems and to provide emerging 4th generation communication service as well as WiFi. This antenna has a shared aperture, having several array antenna sets for multiple services Band 1: cellular service in 0. This antenna can be helpful for reducing base-station operating expenses and to create a clean urban landscape by minimizing the number of base-station antennas, which are increasing rapidly. Modern mobile communication networks are expected to accommodate both current and legacy communications standards. This inevitably involves the provision of radio coverage in a number of frequency bands and complicates the design of the network base transceiver stations BTS. With respect to antennas, the expense of multiple base-station antenna installations and public resistance to unsightly antenna placements has motivated the installation of multiband antennas at base-stations and thus avoids an increase of antenna masts and payloads.

Base stations and networks

Pune, Nov. These network services are delivered through base station BST antennas installed in cell towers that facilitate data transmission. The report states that the global market value was at USD 5. The base station antenna market growth is expected to suffer a setback as the COVID pandemic has forced 5G providers to postpone their rollout plans in

This was based on a number of human epidemiology studies on increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma. Based on further human epidemiology studies and animal studies, the evidence on RF radiation carcinogenesis has increased since In previous measurement studies, it has been indicated that high environmental RF radiation levels are present in certain areas of Stockholm Sweden, including in one apartment.

Base transceiver station

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Antenna Systems for Cellular Base Stations

5 Comments

Dirk B. 08.06.2021 at 09:58

A base transceiver station BTS is a piece of equipment that facilitates wireless communication between user equipment UE and a network.

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Bundeperri 11.06.2021 at 20:08

PDF | This paper gives a general overview of the design of base station antennas for mobile communications. It explains underlying theoretical.

Turulibu 13.06.2021 at 06:28

In the first part the fundamental parameters of a base station antenna are discussed in the context of radio network design. In particular we discuss parameters.

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