File Name: peace and conflict study .zip
Peace and conflict studies is a social science field that identifies and analyzes violent and nonviolent behaviours as well as the structural mechanisms attending conflicts including social conflicts , with a view towards understanding those processes which lead to a more desirable human condition. This social science is in contrast to military studies , which has as its aim on the efficient attainment of victory in conflicts, primarily by violent means to the satisfaction of one or more, but not all, parties involved.
After all, if peace is the absence of violence, and vice versa, then we would expect peace researchers to explore the causes and dynamics of violent conflict. In this short opinion piece, however, I argue that these expectations often do not reflect the reality of contemporary peace and conflict studies — and that is a problem.
I then argue that this bias not only creates an intellectual imbalance, it also runs the risk of normalizing the idea that political resistance and rebellion are necessarily violent pursuits. That normalization, in turn, may have problematic — and incendiary — consequences for the way that activists think about resistance, and the way that authorities respond to resistance. Thus, I conclude by calling for intellectual insurgency; a fundamental shift in the way that we collectively go about realizing peace and conflict research.
If, as suggested, peace and violent conflict are conceptual mirror-images, then there should be a close connection — to the point of symbiosis — between the study of peace and the study of conflict. Symbiotic relationships of all kinds rely on contributions from, and exchange between, cooperating parties. Oxpecker birds, meanwhile, have more or less the same arrangement with zebras and hippos.
Mutual exchange is also key to the success of academic symbioses. If the health sciences are to advance human well-being, for example, then there needs to be communication and exchange between research on the causes of disease and research into the efficacy of remedies. Despite the need for communication between studies of peace and studies of conflict, there has long been concern that exchange is rare, in practice see, for example, Vasquez ; Buzan and Hansen , Ch.
Still, until now, we have had no real way of knowing whether that concern is grounded in reality. Our findings, and a detailed treatment of the methods we employed, have recently been published in the journal International Studies Perspectives.
To answer this question, we look at patterns of inter-citation between the articles in our sample. Our effort to map peace and conflict studies is not academic navel-gazing. With that goal in mind, what might we take from these findings?
In my view, the trends we observe give reason for pause, reflection, and reorientation. Here, I want to focus on our finding that scholars of peace and conflict tend to study violence — a lot. However, as also argued above, studies of violence can only contribute to ameliorative goals when they exchange ideas with studies of peace and peacemaking, and there is only limited evidence of this at present. In the absence of sufficient peace-conflict communication, the study of violence becomes, at best, a purely academic pursuit.
Consider the terms insurgent , rebel , and radical. Broadly, each of these concepts refers to individuals or groups that are interested in bringing about significant change in the socio-political status quo. A quick check of the Oxford English Dictionary confirms that there is nothing inherently violent about groups that can be described in any of the above ways; they can seek reform through violent or nonviolent means.
Why do we associate resistance with violence, despite the fact that nonviolent revolt is common and far more effective than violent insurgency Chenoweth and Stephan , p. While there may be various factors at play, it is hard to get past the idea that our collective penchant for studying violent conflict is contributing to a discursive and, thus, cognitive link between the ideas of resistance and violence.
Such a cognitive association, I want to argue, is problematic; not only is it empirically blinkered but, more ominously, it runs the risk of narrowing the way that political activists think about resistance i. Such reform need not, and should not, involve shying away from studying violence and war. But it could, and should, involve a greater emphasis on studying forms of nonviolent resistance. It could also involve studying peace as a positive and observable outcome unto itself, rather than starting from the position that peace is simply the absence of violence, which is an assumption that immediately brings empirical investigations back to a focus on war.
Signs of such a shift in approach are already beginning to circulate. Going forward, more reflection is needed. He can be reached at john. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing. E-IR is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. Your donations allow us to invest in new open access titles and pay our bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view. Any amount, in any currency, is appreciated.
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John Gledhill. Image by Sebastian Baumer. The Weak Symbiosis between Studies of Peace and Studies of Conflict If, as suggested, peace and violent conflict are conceptual mirror-images, then there should be a close connection — to the point of symbiosis — between the study of peace and the study of conflict. The Violence Bias in Peace and Conflict Studies Our effort to map peace and conflict studies is not academic navel-gazing.
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After all, if peace is the absence of violence, and vice versa, then we would expect peace researchers to explore the causes and dynamics of violent conflict. In this short opinion piece, however, I argue that these expectations often do not reflect the reality of contemporary peace and conflict studies — and that is a problem. I then argue that this bias not only creates an intellectual imbalance, it also runs the risk of normalizing the idea that political resistance and rebellion are necessarily violent pursuits. That normalization, in turn, may have problematic — and incendiary — consequences for the way that activists think about resistance, and the way that authorities respond to resistance. Thus, I conclude by calling for intellectual insurgency; a fundamental shift in the way that we collectively go about realizing peace and conflict research.
This book will prove valuable to peace researchers as well as students interested in furthering their understanding of discursive psychology. Reysen, Choice, Vol. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide.
War, violence, poverty, oppression, and other sources of human suffering are common throughout history, manifesting themselves differently in different times and settings. It is often noted, for example, that the 20th century brought with it a uniquely global scale of tragedy, most clearly represented by the two World Wars, the proliferation of violence around the world following the fall of the Soviet Union, and most recently the increasing levels of inequality within and between nations. The beginning of 21st century on the other hand has displayed both continuity and change with the decades preceding it.
Research projects and other activities focus on attaining positive peace in just societies with plentiful resources for non-violent responses to conflict. The expertise of staff and guest contributors includes peace journalism, transitional justice, genocide studies, human rights, reconciliation, non-violence, the United Nations and the psychology of peace. Our long-established Distance Learning Program offers a globally recognised postgraduate degree without requiring students to relocate — we offer a combination of online study and brief trips to Sydney for intensive units. Graduates in Peace and Conflict Studies have gone on to navigate careers in a range of organisations including aid agencies and international non-government organisations, media and government.
This contribution examines how the critical potential of research on peace in International Relations has been simultaneously marginalized and transformed. It then focuses on two epistemological and normative choices that occlude the emancipatory potential of peace research and marginalize certain approaches to the study of the causes of war and conditions of peace. In a more positive vein, it illustrates, with examples from recent research, where potentially emancipatory or transformative scholarship on building peace has migrated. Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. Don't already have an Oxford Academic account?
Возможные последствия полученного известия словно пулей пронзили Джаббу. Казалось, тучный шеф отдела обеспечения системной безопасности вот-вот рухнет на пол. - Мертв. Но это значит… значит… что мы не можем… - Это значит, что нужен другой план действий. - Фонтейн, как обычно, говорил спокойно и деловито. Глаза Джаббы по-прежнему выражали шок и растерянность, когда сзади раздался душераздирающий крик: - Джабба. Джабба.
Мы занимаемся легальным бизнесом. А вы ищете проститутку. - Слово прозвучало как удар хлыста. - Но мой брат… - Сэр, если ваш брат целый день целовался в парке с девчонкой, то это значит, что она работает не в нашем агентстве. У нас очень строгие правила относительно контактов клиента и сопровождающего. - Но… - Вы спутали нас с кем-то другим. У нас всего две рыженькие, Иммакулада и Росио, и ни та ни другая не станут ни с кем спать за деньги.
Меган! - завопил он, грохнувшись на пол. Острые раскаленные иглы впились в глазницы. Он уже ничего не видел и только чувствовал, как тошнотворный комок подкатил к горлу.
Она нахмурилась. - Ты не заметил ничего. Ну, может, дошел какой-нибудь слушок. - Мидж, послушай. - Он засмеялся.
House of leaves pdf download free farrow and ball living with colour pdfNicandro C. 05.06.2021 at 04:41
to study the conflicts and wars resulting from them, and then to study the foundations of building a lasting peace. The academic and research.Yannick B. 13.06.2021 at 14:05
Peace and Conflict Studies is an interdisciplinary field of study with a commitment to the non-violent management and resolution of conflict from the local to the international level.