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History And Development Of Islamic Education In Nigeria Pdf

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Almajiranci is a system of Islamic education practiced in northern Nigeria and it is also the name for a young boy who is taught within this system, the system is called Almajiranci , the male gender seeking Islam knowledge is called Almajiri , female gender is Almajira , and the plural is almajirai. The system encourages parents to leave parental responsibilities to the attached Islamic school.


The following terms used frequently throughout the research proceedings were defined within the context of this research. Islamiyyah schools: Islamic schools which are semi-formal with sitting arrangement, syllabus and their subjects are mainly Islamic. Almajiranchi: Acts conducted by the Almajiri. Ilmi: Knowledge in Arabic language. Madrasa: The same as Makarantun Zaure- Advanced traditional Islamic schools which trained adults mostly in the veranda of a house, Mosque or under shed of a tree.

The pilot testing showed the reliability coefficient of 0. The conclusion contains the summary, suggestions and recommendations as well as contributions of the study to knowledge and suggestions for further studies. Hence, it urges Muslims to imbibe the values of kindness, generosity, patience, steadfastness, honesty and so on.

Yunus expatiate that essentially Islamic education like most of other forms of education is centered on enabling individuals who acquire it become the kind of people an Islamic society thinks appropriate for its members. Therefore, education in the Islamic sense is intended to build and develop goodness every individual has at birth so that man can hope to remain a worthy servant of the Creator.

This then represent the main philosophy behind Islamic education. Islamic education also aims at developing an individual spiritually, intellectually and providing him the opportunity for adjustment in society. Al-Attas in Yunus maintains that the purpose of Islamic education is not to cram the pupils head with facts but to prepare them for a life of purity and sincerity. This total commitment to character building based on the ideals of Islamic ethics is the highest goal of Islamic education.

Ashraf in Yunus opined that the ultimate aim of Muslim education lies in the realization of complete submission to Allah on the level of the individual, the community and humanity at large. Kazeem and Balogun elaborated that every educational system has its own objective likewise Islamic education, except that Islamic education is deeper and richer both in content and objective.

This position does not mean that Islamic education is against other secular sciences, Islamic education is wide and comprehensive. It encompasses all sciences, either secular or religious. From these we can deduce that Islamic education comprises of other sciences such as medicine, engineering, mathematics, psychology, sociology etc. Sulaiman mentioned that a group of Muslims scholars stated the following as the aims of Islamic education. Balance growth of the total personality of man through training his intellect, spirit, rational sense and Godly senses; b.

It is aimed at producing in man creative inpulse to rule himself and the universe by understanding and harnessing its forces. To inculcate fear and love of Allah; b. To develop piety and faith; d.

As service to Allah; e. To develop the intellectual skills of individuals; f. To transmit the culture of Islam to successive generations. The intellectual objectives are of two types depending on the type of enrolment in the school.

As for the boarding ones, their enrolment mostly aimed at producing future teachers and professionals in various fields, such as Fiqh Islamic Jurisprudence , Sirah Prophets biographical life , Hadith sayings and practices of Prophet S. While the second objective of the Almajirai system is the provision of moral development of the pupils which can be achieved through different means.

Furthermore, pupils are also taught to shun away from the forbidden acts such as telling lies, deceitfulness, alcoholic drinks, adultery, gambling and dishonesty among others through admonition and preaching. Children become fully inducted into Islamic moral values in all behaviours, c. Children become as knowledgeable in Arabic language and basic Islamic sciences as a foundation for further studies. It aims at producing well disciplined, highly skilful and responsible human beings who are conscious of their duties to Almighty Allah and commitments to the service of their society.

Historical evolution of Islamic education in northern Nigeria. Fafunwa expatiated that indeed the history of the teaching of Arabic throughout the Islamic World, and particularly in the non-Arab World, has been the history of the spread of Islam. Khalid elucidated that Islamic education in Hausaland is as old as the spread of Islam in the area which began as early as the eleventh century through the deliberate activities of Muslim traders and itinerant scholars as well as migrants.

By the fifteen century the reputation of some Hausa state capitals as Muslim metropolis was already high enough to attract many students and scholars. A fifteenth century ruler of Zazzau appointed a malam from Mali as one of his subordinate chief as stated by Abdurrahman and Canhan in Khalid , which seems to indicate that there was a Muslim scholars community from which to make the choice.

About this time also, the neighbouring Gao, Djenne and Borno were overflowing with schools and scholars of international repute, and the book market was a flourishing business Smith, in Khalid, Khalid mentioned that in the seventeenth century, Katsina produced native scholars like Muhammadu Dan-Marina d. E and Muhammadu Dan-Masani d.

Sheikh al-Maghili was credited with the building of Gobarau Mosque in Katsina after which he became the first Imam leading Jumu'at congregational prayers. Dantakum was said to have traveled widely and made acquaintance with various scholars of his time. Lawal elaborated that sheikh Dantakum was identified as the second prominent author of Hausaland after Sheikh al-Maghili.

He wrote the famous commentary on Mukhtasar Khalil. He finally settled in Katsina on his way back from pilgrimage to Makkah. Bello n. Raji in Lawal elaborated that oral traditions had shown that Imam Jalal al-Deen al-Suyuti was also said to have visited and sojourned Hausaland and Katsina.

Sarumi mentioned that before the coming of western oriented education to Nigeria, the Islamic literacy had been established. There were Muslim teachers, administrators, and scholars serving at the courts of emirs and rulers in some parts of the country, then. Fafunwa stated that Islam was brought to Hausaland in the early fourteenth century by traders and scholars.

About fourty Wangara traders are thought to be responsible for introducing Islam to Kano during the reign of Ali Yaji who ruled Kano from to During the reign of Yaqub some Fulani scholars migrated to Kano, bringing with them books on Islamic theology and Jurisprudence.

During the reign of Muhammad Rumfa Islam become firmly rooted and Islamic principles were taught in different places. It was Rumfa who asked the famous scholar and theologian, Al-Maghili, to write a book on Islamic government in the fifteenth century. Fafunwa expatiate that Al-Maghili later went to Katsina which had also become a center of Islamic learning during the fifteenth century. Where most of the pilgrims from Makkah used to visit.

Similarly a number of scholars from Sankore University, Timbuktu, visited the city bringing with them books on divinity and etymology. In the seventeenth century, Katsina produced native scholars like Muhammad Dan Masani d. Learning developed among these learned men, says Hamidu Alkali n. A group of these malams, most of whom seems to be interrelated, formed an intellectual harmony, and among them the state of learning was much higher.

They were organized into a sort of guid, and a master would grant a recognized certificate Ijazah to those students who satisfactorily passed the prescribed course of study under him. This system continued until the coming of the British to Nigeria. Oloyede elucidated that the first method of introducing the so-called secular subjects into Arabic and Islamic institutions was used in Katsina College when in it broadened its curriculum by introducing science and other conventional subjects.

This method also led to the conversion of the then Northern Provinces Law School which was meant for the training of Qadis Judges to the School of Arabic Studies in In the School, English and Arithmetic were taught in addition to other Arabic subjects. This method assisted in the production of junior primary school teachers and it admitted students of ilmi schools who had never attended any conventional primary school.

The opportunity created by this method paved way for the students to pursue their education up to university level in London, Cairo, Khartoum and Libya. The achievement of these schools led to the establishment of similar one in Sokoto in , while in the s, the Kwara State Government followed suit by establishing four of such schools in the state. As successful as this method was, it was being suspected by some scholars as a quick means of Westernization of Muslim education.

According to Fafunwa after the British come to Nigeria, the Christians opened schools and colleges and prepared their scholars for the school certificate and matriculation examination in the secondary schools. This was an impossible situation; some Muslim intellectuals therefore, began to propose reforms in the existing system of Arabic and Islamic education.

Fafunwa stated that when Alhaji Abdullahi Bayero, Emir of Kano, returned from his pilgrimage to Makkah in , he brought with him new ideas best on what he had seen in the Middle East and Arabia. He set up a school at Kano to be maintained jointly by all native authorities for the training of Alkalis Judges. It was named the Northern Provinces Law School. In the Law school was changed into the school for Arabic studies and come under government control.

The main task of this school was to train teachers in Arabic and Islamic subjects, as well as in English and Arithmetic. In , the government introduced a scheme by which untrained junior primary teachers attended courses at the school for Arabic studies, and between and , morethan two third of all primary school teachers had received this training, thus enabling them to improve their position and raised their standard of education.

In , the year of independence, this school organized a post secondary course in Arabic and Islamic studies as a preliminary to the establishment of the Abdullahi Bayero College. In this way a concerted effort was made to direct some of these students from the ilmi schools and Muslims higher institutions towards University and post secondary modern education. Thus, variation in curricular emphases on Arabic and Islamic Studies calls for classifying the new Islamic schools into two types: Schools operating Madrasa curriculum; and schools operating modified national curriculum of public schools.

Ever before this development, it was said that some of the candidates admitted into the schools were so versed in Islamic theology that had authored books on various aspects of Islamic education in Arabic, while some were so deep in Islamic learning that they had studied such advanced Arabic texts as the Mukhtasar al-Khalil and Tuhfat al-Hukkam for judges among others.

Early schools of Islamic scholarship in Katsina. Furthermore, Karkarku still remain a scholarly community and continue to produce Qadis and other forms of Muslim intelligentsia.

It was this Malam that now enlist the child and the teaching of religious scriptures and way of life are indoctrinated into the young pupils. He further explains that one teacher can register up to a hundred and more pupils whom he singularly keeps, guides and control.

To keep them fed and accommodated are also part of the teacher's responsibilities. Then the pupils are left on their own to continue repeating the verse until they have thoroughly memorized it. At this level, hardly is any attempt made to enable the pupils understand the meaning of what they recite or write. The teacher only pays particular attention to the reading and writing skills of every pupil as well as keep tract of his attendance even though no formal registers were kept.

The relationship between teacher and pupil is generally intimate and personal. The teacher is always ready to pardon a late-comer if he is convinced that his lateness was caused by some engagements at home. Whenever he malam uses the cane, as put by Fafunwa , he does so with fatherly levity and caution. As for disciplinary measures, the long whip is always handy to deal with erring pupils, and leg chains are sometimes used to confine truants to the school premises for a number of days as a punishment Sulaiman, in Khalid The school schedule of programmes is extremely flexible and allows for each parent to send his child to school at the most convenient period for both the parent and the child.

Khalid elaborated that the exact times of the beginning of classes vary from area to area, and from teacher to teacher. In most of the schools there are three sessions. In a study conducted by Yahya at Kano in Khalid, , the school sessions are classified as follows

Aims and purposes of Muslim education

The following terms used frequently throughout the research proceedings were defined within the context of this research. Islamiyyah schools: Islamic schools which are semi-formal with sitting arrangement, syllabus and their subjects are mainly Islamic. Almajiranchi: Acts conducted by the Almajiri. Ilmi: Knowledge in Arabic language. Madrasa: The same as Makarantun Zaure- Advanced traditional Islamic schools which trained adults mostly in the veranda of a house, Mosque or under shed of a tree.

Islam placed a high value on education, and, as the faith spread among diverse peoples, education became an important channel through which to create a universal and cohesive social order. By the middle of the 9th century, knowledge was divided into three categories: the Islamic sciences, the philosophical and natural sciences Greek knowledge , and the literary arts. Early Muslim education emphasized practical studies, such as the application of technological expertise to the development of irrigation systems, architectural innovations , textiles, iron and steel products, earthenware, and leather products; the manufacture of paper and gunpowder; the advancement of commerce; and the maintenance of a merchant marine. After the 11th century, however, denominational interests dominated higher learning , and the Islamic sciences achieved preeminence. Greek knowledge was studied in private, if at all, and the literary arts diminished in significance as educational policies encouraging academic freedom and new learning were replaced by a closed system characterized by an intolerance toward scientific innovations, secular subjects, and creative scholarship.

Islam has, from its inception, placed a high premium on education and has enjoyed a long and rich intellectual tradition. Knowledge 'ilm occupies a significant position within Islam, as evidenced by the more than references to it in Islam's most revered book, the Koran. The importance of education is repeatedly emphasized in the Koran with frequent injunctions, such as "God will exalt those of you who believe and those who have knowledge to high degrees" , "O my Lord! Increase me in knowledge" , and "As God has taught him, so let him write" Such verses provide a forceful stimulus for the Islamic community to strive for education and learning. Islamic education is uniquely different from other types of educational theory and practice largely because of the all-encompassing influence of the Koran. The Koran serves as a comprehensive blueprint for both the individual and society and as the primary source of knowledge.


Islamic schools in Nigeria have undergone transformations from a position of monopolistic control over spiritual knowledge to one of competition and subsequently struggle for survival as they encountered missionary and colonial incursions. The post-colonial state that emerged had to endure weakened Islamic schools which nonetheless retained legitimacy in the eyes of observant Muslims as culturally and religiously valued institutions. This paper describes a fluctuating pattern of mutual isolation, engagement and competition that characterise the relationship between the state, Islamic schools and an influential corps of Islamic clerics Ulama operating outside the spheres of state bureaucracy. Northern Nigeria, where these schools are prevalent, has endured a long list of developmental challenges including a low level of educational attainment which places it at a competitive disadvantage in its relationship with Southern Nigeria.

Education has played a central role in Islam since early times, owing in part to the centrality of scripture and its study in the Islamic tradition. Before the modern era, education would begin at a young age with study of Arabic and the Quran. Some students would then proceed to training in tafsir Quranic exegesis and fiqh Islamic jurisprudence , which was seen as particularly important. For the first few centuries of Islam, educational settings were entirely informal, but beginning in the 11th and 12th centuries, the ruling elites began to establish institutions of higher religious learning known as madrasas in an effort to secure support and cooperation of the ulema religious scholars.

Handbook of Islamic Education pp Cite as. Islamic schools in West Africa, madrasahs medersas , continue to evolve and flourish, playing an increasingly significant role in the education of children. As school enrollment increases in the region, public schools are increasingly overcrowded.

Education in Islam

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Islamic Education in West and Central Africa

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