File Name: rural development planning concepts and techniques .zip
Rural Development is the process of improving the quality of life and economic well-being of people living in rural areas , often relatively isolated and sparsely populated areas. Rural Development has traditionally centered on the exploitation of land-intensive natural resources such as agriculture and forestry. However, changes in global production networks and increased urbanization have changed the character of rural areas.
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The purpose of the study is to establish scientific rational for the use of the foresight methodology in the strategic planning of rural development. The scientific novelty of the study is determined by the development of an algorithm for strategic planning of rural development based on the foresight methodology and by the formation of a set of practical recommendations for the use of foresight tools at the municipal level of management in rural areas.
The paper states that modern foresight methodology is quite flexible and multifaceted. It can be widely applied at different hierarchical levels of management. In our research, we consistently analyzed foresight projects and programs used in the rural management and development forecasting.
The use of a systematic approach in combination with foresight technologies allows developing strategic plans for the rural areas development from the perspective of improvement of their economic and social component. The research presents the foresight algorithm of the rural development strategic planning and its implementation mechanism at the municipal level. The main components of the foresight testing procedure of the rural areas economic development were determined on the example of such a classic agricultural region of the Russian Federation as the Republic of Bashkortostan.
The results of a comprehensive foresight analysis of alternative scenarios of the rural development have been formed. We summarized that the foresight technologies should be used as a system tool for the formation and implementation of the strategy of the sustainable rural areas development.
The main results of the study include summarizing the experience of foresight studies on the rural areas development; design of an algorithm of strategic planning of the rural areas development based on the foresight methodology; the formation of alternative scenarios of the rural areas development at the regional level. Today, there is an increased interest of the scientific community to the problems of the use of foresight technologies in the strategic planning of the development of space territorial systems.
As Patrick Becker emphasizes, foresight is a process of active knowledge of the future, a vision of mid-term and long-term prospects in science, economy and society. This process is aimed at supporting and mobilizing joint efforts to make and implement relevant decisions [ 2 ]. The concept allows focusing not on individual sectors of the agricultural economy, but on certain activities of economic entities agroformations.
General methodological principle of foresight and its development in foreign countries is the involvement of different social forces such as scientific community, business structures, civil society, and representatives of state municipal authorities in the process of promising strategies discussing and making forecasts for the rural areas development [ 3 ].
The main development imperative of the modern foresight concept determines a more active use of the knowledge of the expert community involved in the development of foresight projects [ 4 ].
In economically developed countries various methods are used to develop foresight projects. They are quantitative and qualitative methods.
Economic and mathematical modeling, analysis and forecasting of indicators, and extrapolation of trends belong to quantitative methods. Qualitative methods include role-playing games, morphological analysis, interviews, literature reviews, and planning of alternative scenarios. To design a rural development strategy, any researcher can certainly use different combinations of foresight methods and technologies. At the same time, each country or region uses its own combination of foresight methods tools to design a development strategy.
Methodological approaches are improving constantly. Procedures and techniques are processed and corrected. All this ensures the validity of rural development prospects prediction [ 5 ]. In this case, one method is chosen to be dominant, and the others complement the overall picture of the rural areas future development. In the USA, foresight is developed within individual agricultural sectors. There, foresight coprograms participatory programs are effectively applied.
American foresight can be called institutional management of the future. It is implemented primarily as a management technology. In this case, the following principles of foresight research are implemented: involvement commitment and communication of social forces, focusing on a long term and coordination [ 7 ]. These models reflect the stages of the strategic planning of particular mechanisms to achieve the desired future. A key component of Canadian foresight seminars is the identification of those major problems that, according to experts, will determine the development of rural areas over the long term in the future [ 8 ].
In the European Union EU , according to the adopted Lisbon strategy, all the countries entering the EU must form their regional foresights. The Modern European version of foresight is based primarily on the inertial development of rural areas and, as foreign researchers note, there is no ontology in its methodological basis [ 5 , 9 , 10 ]. At the same time, most of the European foresight methods are extremely formalized and meaningful. They basically do not contain a prognostic element [ 11 — 13 ].
In Germany, foresight tools are actively used to assess and predict rural development [ 14 , 15 ]. Perspective German foresight projects are represented by a system of tracking monitoring system.
The system helps to search and spread new relevant information by a mechanism of strategic dialogues between experts [ 16 ]. In Japan, long-term foresight projects for rural development with an outlook for mainly 30 years are very popular.
It should be noted that Japanese foresight focuses primarily on two key areas: long-term trends review and determining of promising technologies and monitoring of the current state of rural development [ 18 ].
In China, two major foresight initiatives have been successfully implemented in recent years. Moreover, special attention is paid to the discussion of opportunities and stimulating fundamental changes in the existing paradigm of rural development.
At present, in the context of the development of planning and program documents for sustainable development of rural areas, systemic and synergistic foresights are successfully combined. In the Russian Federation, foresight is a relatively new phenomenon. The new paradigm of the rural development strategic planning in the Russian Federation determines the development of a methodology that would be based on the use of foresight.
At the same time, in scientific literature there is practically no scientific research results devoted to the rural development strategic planning based on the use of foresight methodology.
In recent years, researches made by Russian scientists are mainly devoted to the development of foresight projects that solve the problems of forming strategies for the development of industries and large cities. In Russian practice of foresight research, there is no single organizational mechanism for interaction between municipal authorities and the local expert community.
Etalon tools for the foresight research on the rural municipalities development have not been worked out. A characteristic feature of Russian foresight is its great attention paid to ontological issues of the development of the studied objects. The practice of Russian foresight has become widespread since the middle of the first decade of the 21st century. At the regional level, foresight projects were formed in the Irkutsk, Saratov, Perm, and Krasnoyarsk regions.
A preforesight project was organized in the Republic of Sakha. In the Republic of Bashkortostan the formation of a foresight project in was primarily associated with the choice of innovative priorities and the development of a strategy for innovative development of the region [ 22 — 24 ].
The main work methods were critical technologies in combination with SWOT analysis, as well as focus groups formation and expert survey [ 25 , 26 ]. Today, there is a growing interest of the Russian scientific community to the problems of foresight application. However, many methodological issues of foresight of rural development remain unresolved, open to discussion, and insufficiently studied. In our opinion, among these problems are foresight integration and road mapping when developing strategic plans for sustainable development of rural municipalities, formation of strategies based on these plans, and assessing the effectiveness of foresight projects, as well as the lack of detailed methodological approaches to the development of foresight studies at the rural level.
Today, more accurate forecasts are required. They should be based on the real functional possibilities of rural entities with greater influence of management structures on their future development. At the same time, unlike traditional forecasting, the result of foresight research is not only the definition of prospects and strategic guidelines, but also the development of practical measures for their implementation.
The solution of these topical issues is not a trivial task and necessitates the use of a systematic approach to this study. The purpose of the study is to establish scientific rational for the use of the foresight methodology in the strategic planning of the rural areas development.
The research objects are to design an algorithm of strategic planning of the rural areas development based on the foresight methodology as well as the formation of alternative scenarios of the rural areas development at the regional level. The issues of rural areas development in the region under current conditions are determined by a versatility and dynamism of different scientific approaches and methods to be applied for solving these issues [ 28 — 30 ].
These circumstances determine a special role of the foresight methodology and a systematic approach for designing rural development strategy. The use of these modern scientific methods allows assessing rural development from the perspective of prospective improvement of the economic and social component of the rural areas development. The algorithm of strategic planning of rural development designed with the application of foresight methodology is based on the formulation of the rural areas mission, hierarchical goal-setting, analysis of socioeconomic problems of rural development, and their ranking.
When making a foresight research, we take into account the natural resource potential, local specific conditions that determine the development of agricultural production, and location of social facilities and infrastructure in rural areas. Foresight research is based on a comprehensive approach, which involves examination of all elements of the studied territorial system rural areas in total , including strategic objectives and the definition of relationships between the elements of the system.
We have to subscribe to the opinion of Heinz, who thinks that one of the most effective methods of foresight is scenario planning.
This method helps to make such a choice of options for change in the studied organization, which in the future will allow achieving the goals [ 31 ]. Scenario approach specifies choice diversity and alternativeness of a trajectory of the sustainable development strategy [ 33 , 34 ]. Alternative scenarios for the development of rural areas are formed on the basis of foresight technologies with the involvement of the expert community.
Pre-poll training of experts is carried out before each round. In order to get valid results before the second round, the results of the first round were analyzed and registered. Then, experts were acquainted with them. After the second round, the final analysis was carried out, and the results of the entire expert survey were presented. Round 1 consists of the following stages.
Stage 1: pre-poll training, during which the following issues were identified: the definition of specific tasks and conditions of expert polls, revealing sources of information which can be used for a deeper study of problems, searching for specialists and experts which would take part in foresight sessions and conferences in order to make the most objective evaluation, and a competent long-term forecast of the rural areas development of the region.
At the same time, development directions and topical issues are formulated. Criteria for issues hierarchy are developed. Stage 2: development of a polling sheet questionnaire , containing indicators and strategic directions of rural development, which are subsequently subject to expert evaluation. Stage 3: a survey of experts.
Experts were divided into several focus groups. Seminars were given for each particular group at which the study issues were discussed and analyzed independently of other expert groups. Stage 4: expert analysis of a preferred strategy of the sustainable development of rural areas. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the most realistic and attractive strategy for the sustainable development of rural areas in future.
Stage 5: processing and analysis of the survey results. The results of the previous survey round helped to get more information which experts can use during repeated rounds. Expert assessments differed from each other. We studied these differences and revealed previously unnoticed aspects of the problem which allowed fixing the attention of the expert community on probable consequences of the development of the analyzed socioeconomic situation in the considered rural areas.
Subsequently, the results of all focus groups were summarized and presented for discussion. Final decisions were made at the final foresight conference.
In this case, the foresight methodology is based on the targeted identification and the use of knowledge of experts. Among them are representatives of the executive and legislative regional authorities, scientific and research community members, public representatives, media, businessmen, and heads of rural municipalities of the Republic of Bashkortostan.
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It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. This book aims to contribute to the current debate on how to integrate rural development policies and landscape planning in rural areas. Case studies from different rural contexts and landscapes are provided, illustrating tools and options to make the advocated integration operational. Recommendations and guidance to policy making are proposed. The case studies presented cover 1 the use of visual assessment techniques to support landscape planning in rural areas; 2 participative applications of landscape assessment techniques in peri-urban areas; 3 multi-scale approaches to landscape management in Alpine areas and 4 the application of landscape economic evaluation to foster rural development strategies.
RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING: CONCEPTS. AND TECHNIQUES. D. G. RtBelshaw*. University o f East Anglia. Trends in the conceptualisation and.
The purpose of the study is to establish scientific rational for the use of the foresight methodology in the strategic planning of rural development. The scientific novelty of the study is determined by the development of an algorithm for strategic planning of rural development based on the foresight methodology and by the formation of a set of practical recommendations for the use of foresight tools at the municipal level of management in rural areas. The paper states that modern foresight methodology is quite flexible and multifaceted.
Graduate Calendars Graduate Studies. It also fills the skill knowledge gaps for students who cannot take full courses. Students, in consultation with their Academic Advisor, asses their knowledge and skills need and aquire them through selected 'modules'. It gives an understanding of the major methods involved and teaches selected methods. The focus is on the international, rural context and on small non-farm projects: small industries, small physical infrastructure and social projects.
Some concepts and techniques in rural development. Special Rural Development Programme in Kenya.
Чрезвычайная ситуация. В шифровалке. Спускаясь по лестнице, она пыталась представить себе, какие еще неприятности могли ее ожидать.
Да, сэр. Шестнадцать часов. Но это не все, сэр.
Давайте оба веса. Мы произведем вычитание. - Подождите, - сказала Соши. - Сейчас найду.
Это невозможно. Хейл высокомерно засмеялся. - Одна из проблем, связанных с приемом на работу самых лучших специалистов, коммандер, состоит в том, что иной раз они оказываются умнее. - Молодой человек, - вскипел Стратмор, - я не знаю, откуда вы черпаете свою информацию, но вы переступили все допустимые границы. Вы сейчас же отпустите мисс Флетчер, или я вызову службу безопасности и засажу вас в тюрьму до конца ваших дней.
Как ты легко можешь себе представить, я был шокирован, впервые наткнувшись на его письмо Северной Дакоте о не поддающемся взлому коде, именуемом Цифровая крепость. Я полагал, что это невозможно. Но всякий раз, когда я перехватывал очередное сообщение, Танкадо был все более и более убедительным. Когда я прочитал, что он использовал линейную мутацию для создания переломного ключа, я понял, что он далеко ушел от нас. Он использовал подход, который никому из нас не приходил в голову.
Это все равно что изучать иностранный язык. Сначала текст воспринимается как полная бессмыслица, но по мере постижения законов построения его структуры начинает появляться смысл. Беккер понимающе кивнул, но ему хотелось знать. Используя вместо классной доски салфетки ресторана Мерлутти или концертные программы, Сьюзан дала этому популярному и очень привлекательному преподавателю первые уроки криптографии. Она начала с совершенного квадрата Юлия Цезаря.
Просмотрев все еще раз, он отступил на шаг и нахмурился.
Да, мистер Клушар, конечно, понимаю. Это цена, которую приходится платить за известность. - Действительно. - Клушар вздохнул с видом мученика, вынужденного терпеть всякий сброд.
Коммандер, пытаясь приоткрыть дверь, прижал лицо вплотную к узенькой щелке. - Господи Боже мой, Сьюзан, с тобой все в порядке. Она встала на ноги и расправила платье. - Все обошлось. Сьюзан огляделась.
Простите. - Шифр не поддается взлому, - сказал он безучастно.
Rural Development Planning: Concepts and Techniques. November ; Journal Request Full-text Paper PDF. To read the full-text of this.Kenyatae W. 08.06.2021 at 11:10
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