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Music, Social Media and Global Mobility

Mjs-Music, Soci. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.

Includes bibliographical references and index. Music—Social aspects. Music and globalization. Social media. Online social networks. M56 I thank my colleagues Hallvard Moe and Lars Nyre for reading and com-menting on chapters and extracts and for help shaping the book, and Moe in particular for his continuous support and role in implementing a both humane and productive writing regime.

It goes without saying that any remaining inaccuracies and errors of fact or interpretations are entirely my own.

PrefaceThe idea for this book project came about when as a former electronic music practitioner, I started to think about how this practice seemed to have changed over the last decades.

I was involved in this part of the music sector through-out the s, both as producer and as administrator—close to a decade. I contributed on records released by record labels based in Europe—in the UK, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Since I have been living in Bergen, a small city on the west coast of Norway, fi rst as a music practitioner, before moving into television documentary production and then into academia.

Since the turn of the millennium, a number of electronic music artists, pro-ducers, and DJs based in Bergen have experienced success internationally. Today, still living in Bergen, but now working as a media researcher at the Uni-versity of Bergen in the fi elds of international communication and global media studies, observing former colleagues and current friends involved in the electronic music scene, I have been struck by how dif f erent their music practice seems, particularly the increasing use of the internet.

I observed how from the mids the internationally expanding social media, MySpace, seemed to have become a key tool and a new arena for many of them in a relatively short time.

From these electronic music practitioners, I heard how they created prof i les on MySpace to promote and access music and information, to get to know other musicians, to connect with music scenes, to distribute concert fl yers and videos, and to communicate with fans and fellow practitioners—both in the local community and across the world xii Prefacein the UK, US, Australia, and Japan.

This was very dif f erent from my professional experience in the s as a music practitioner. In the early s, prior to the maturing of the internet and long before what we today know as social media, the physical movement of formats, objects, and persons was at the center of music practice.

My colleagues and I had to send physical music demo tapes from Norway to record labels in London and continental Europe by ordinary mail. If we were lucky and got a record deal, we sent the fi nished recordings on tapes to the record company, and months after that, we received vinyl records in the post.

CDs were an important format—particularly for albums. The physical distribu-tion of fl yers and posters person-to-person was the main means to promote club nights or concerts. You could read about new electronic music in Brit-ish magazines such as Mixmag, ID, DJ, and The Face, but to hear such music, you had to either order records by mail or travel to cities with club venues and specialist record shops such as London.

The dif f erence between the s and today is striking. I became curi-ous and wanted to understand how these electronic music practitioners experienced these recent developments and in particular the possible role that global social media seemed to play in their practice. I also wanted to explore to what extent this development could say something about general developments within the media and communications landscape.

I too worried about this, and to some extent my worries were realized. I had not grasped how quickly the social media environment could change. When I started to think about this project in , MySpace was the focus of my study, and there existed few studies of the social media phenomenon in general. However, Facebook expanded rapidly after it opened to the wider public in By May , Facebook had more users internation-ally than MySpace.

By the end of , Facebook had been adopted by more than mil-lion users. When inter-viewing with music practitioners in early , the focus of the research project was on the role of MySpace.

I realized that MySpace had been very important from the mids, but the internationally expanding Face-book was rapidly becoming a popular social media, for these music practi-tioners as well. I decided to talk to interviewees again in late to learn how their use of social media had developed. I also compared MySpace to other global social media, in particular to contrast the key historical and political economic aspects of their global expansion. The book, then, Preface xiiicenters on the period to , the seminal years of the development of a global social media environment, focusing on MySpace, Facebook, and YouTube—the online video-sharing service—and the take-up of these ser-vices by electronic music practitioners.

It is dif f i cult to study moving targets, but since I had decided to study the activity of electronic music practitioners that had been active over a long period of time, I aimed to examine the bigger picture.

I therefore talked to the electronic music practitioners about their practice in the s, and during the emergence and maturing of the internet and global social media, and after the social media phenomena had achieved a mainstream presence.

The book, then, explores the emerging global social media and music nexus in the period from to , from both a corporate and a user perspective, using two methodological approaches. The user perspective is explored mainly through qualitative interviews with these practitioners—examining their experiences and practical work.

To strengthen the study, and enhance the wider relevance of the book, also included is a historical and political economic exploration of the global social media environment emerging since the mids.

The development of these online services is studied from a corporate perspective through the analysis of second-ary sources: quantitative data, corporate strategies, marketing reports, and statistics on media use. This also includes the corporate relationship and collaboration between the music industry and these social media services. This approach aims to map the context and environment the music prac-titioners operate in from a corporate perspective.

Throughout the book, I also show how the two perspectives, the user perspective and the corporate perspective, intersect and interrelate. The book, then, has three take-aways. Firstly, it shows, from both a cor-porate and a user perspective, how the emerging global social media and music nexus represents a new space for electronic music practitioners, while at the same time the users of these services are, in various ways, being or at least attempted to be exploited commercially. Secondly, this development has theoretical consequences.

It challenges, in particular, some political economic perspectives on international communication and media global-ization, as much of our knowledge derives from the study of television and fi lm—traditional audiovisual spaces, without such opportunities for user participation.

Thirdly, the book suggests how we may theoretically grasp this development. Global social media facilitates unprecedented possibilities for practitioners to communicate and operate within the global communica-tions infrastructure. Ole J. His previous practical experience in the media and creative indus-tries includes work in television documentary production, and contribu-tions on many records within the wide genre of electronic music. I did not even know how to rent a domain name on the internet.

I am sure there were many in a similar situation that created MySpace prof i les. It was easy to create a website on MySpace where you could present music and have direct contact with others, and have complete control over the site despite having no knowledge of web design.

This was back in Music artists and bands not only in the US but in dif f erent parts of the world were fl ocking to the social media. Halfway through , the American music magazine Billboard claimed , amateur and professional bands had created prof i les on MySpace to promote their music. At that time, MySpace had reportedly around 15 million members, and new users continued to join at an astonishing rate, rapidly expanding the MySpace universe Bruno, ; Cohn, ; News Corporation, The former was interested in reaching fans, while the fans wished to be noticed by their favored music art-ists and groups.

MySpace, then, provided opportunities within the 2 Music, Social Media and Global Mobilityglobal media and communications landscape that had not been available pre-viously and consequently many music artists and fans embraced the service. While artists had relied on physically promoting themselves, distribut-ing fl yers, fanzines, videos, and music on CDs and hoping that their music videos were shown on local or national television shows or specialist televi-sion outlets such as MTV, the emergence and take-up of social media began to inf l uence their practice.

MySpace let artists create prof i les where they could present their music, incorporate YouTube music videos, display band photos, and list upcoming concerts. They could distribute fl yers to—or contact—other MySpace members. Importantly, it was also possible to link their MySpace prof i le to other prof i les. The usability of the pioneering MySpace appealed to millions of people, not only bands, and a growing preoccupation with the commercial potential of such online services soon caught the attention of the media and commu-nication industry giants.

With powerful new owners and increased attention in the international mainstream press, MySpace expanded fast. In January it was the most popular website in the US Angwin, Vast numbers of bands and artists were among the millions attracted to the multimedia online service.

However, these formative years of the global social media and music nexus are characterized by fl ux and shifts. Facebook was already outper-forming MySpace globally in mid, and the popularity of Twitter also grew rapidly in this period Arrington, b. This book shows how these recent developments have consequences for our comprehension of how media globalization unfolds and develops.

It focuses on understanding how these global social media have evolved, and how one group of users—electronic music practitioners—have come to take up and use these services in their music practice and work. These practitioners are part of the wider group of bands and artists that was of key importance in the development of MySpace. MySpace, along with YouTube, was the fi rst to enable these practitioners to participate and operate within the global com-munications infrastructure in an unprecedented way.

Later, Facebook and Twitter became part of the global social media milieu and were adopted by many music practitioners. It is clear that during the formative years of the global social media environment to , these services facilitated an increased potential for communicative and virtual mobility for such music practitioners Hannam, Sheller, and Urry, ; Elliott and Urry, ix. Therefore, to understand the impact and signif i cance of the various components that drive this development, we need to examine it from both a user and a corporate perspective.

At the center of the book are electronic music practitioners in the city of Bergen, Norway, and the role global social media have in their practice. This scene has been part of the international electronic and dance music scenes that emerged in several cities in the late s and early s in the US, UK, and continental Europe Hesmondhalgh, ; Reynolds, ; The popularity and international expansion of electronic music was partly made possible through sampling techniques and low-cost technology that required no for-mal skills of writing or reading music.

It refers to artists, pro-ducers, DJs, club organizers, and promoters all working within this genre. These artists are key interviewees in this book see Appendix for discographies of the interviewed artists.

Many of these practitioners have operated both locally and internationally for several years, and some in particular the members of the Bergen-based Datarock, as well as Mikal Telle, record label owner, DJ, and event organizer also have links to and within music genres such as indie rock. Since the turn of the millennium, these Bergen-based artists have achieved artistic or commercial success or both and received considerable attention, not only in the niche music press, 4 Music, Social Media and Global Mobilitybut in the international popular and mainstream press.

The electronic music practitioners in this book have frequently been described by the press as central in the Bergen music scene.

It is easy for the press to slap the term on a group of artists, which risks exagger-ating the cohesion between them and contributing to the hyping of an exotic and remote part of Europe. Still, there are a number of facts that relate specif i cally to the Bergen-based electronic music practitioners studied in this book.

Furthermore, many of them know each other personally and professionally, and all have frequented and played at the same venues and club nights in Bergen run, in particular, by interviewee Vegard Moberg Nilsen i. Several of these practitioners have also organized and played at regular club nights Introduction 5in Bergen at the same venue, Landmark: Hot! Lastly, as we shall see, a number of these artists discovered MySpace through each other. The book, then, shows how this group of Bergen-based electronic music practitioners, as well as practitioners from a related electronic music scene in East London, worked before and after the arrival of global social media, how they adopted these services, and the role these services have in their music practice at both a local and an international level.

The rapid adoption of global social media by hundreds of millions of internet users across the world stands in contrast to the development of tra-ditional media in a number of ways.

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A social networking service also social networking site or social media is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. Social networking services vary in format and the number of features. They can incorporate a range of new information and communication tools, operating on desktops and on laptops , on mobile devices such as tablet computers and smartphones. Defined as "websites that facilitate the building of a network of contacts in order to exchange various types of content online," social networking sites provide a space for interaction to continue beyond in person interactions.

Mjs-Music, Soci. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. Includes bibliographical references and index.

Looking Back, Looking Forward: New Strategies for Coverage of a National Web Sphere

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Eld Zierau , Ditte Laursen. N2 - Harvest of national web spheres has now existed for at least a decade, where the internet has been changing rapidly both with respect to contents and use. This has challenged not only the techniques of the harvesting, but also where to look for relevant web material for a national webs sphere. This presentation starts with an historical overview of changes in collection strategies at the Danish web archive and ends by description of the latest implementations made in Denmark to cover web materials outside the national top level domain. During the last decade an increasing amount of national web pages have moved to generic Top Level Domains like. The challenge is far bigger than anticipated, as a study last year indicated that different methods found different web material.

The Media Welfare State: Nordic Media in the Digital Age is the first theoretically driven book to comprehensively address the central dynamics of the digitalisation of the media industry in the Nordic countries-Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, a This book is about the relationship between media and globalization, explored through the unique study of the global expansion of Discovery Communications, spearheaded by the Discovery Channel, one of the world's largest providers of factual telev Ole J. His previous practical experience in the media and creative industries includes work in television documentary production, and contributions on many records within the wide genre of electronic music. Introduction 2. Global Social Media and Media Globalization 3.


Music, Social Media and Global Mobility: MySpace, Facebook, YouTube study of electronic music practitioners' use of the global social media: MySpace, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. Request Full-text Paper PDF.


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This book is about the relationship between media, communication and globalization, explored through the unique empirical study of electronic music practitioners' use of the global social media: MySpace, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. Drawing on interview-based research with electronic music artists, DJs, producers and managers, together with the historical portrayal of the emergence of global social media this pioneering study aims to capture a development taking place in music culture within the wider transformations of the media and communications landscape; from analogue to digital, from national to global, and from a largely passive to more active media use. In doing so, it explores the emergence of a media and communications ecology with increased mobility, velocity and uncertainty. The numerous competing, and rapidly growing and fading social media exemplify the vitality and volatility of the transforming global media, communication and cultural landscape. The book deploys an interdisciplinary approach to media globalization that takes into account and articulates this relationship, and reflects the enduring power equations and wider continuities and changes within the global media and communications sphere. Sign up to our newsletter today! Click here for more details

22: РУЧНОЕ ОТКЛЮЧЕНИЕ ГЛАВА 35 Беккер в шоке смотрел на Росио. - Вы продали кольцо. Девушка кивнула, и рыжие шелковистые волосы скользнули по ее плечам.

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 - Я вас ни в чем не виню. - Но, сэр… - заикаясь выдавила.  - Я… я протестую. Я думаю… - Вы протестуете? - переспросил директор и поставил на стол чашечку с кофе.

Кроме всего прочего, Хейл был настоящим ходячим несчастьем, готовым свалиться на голову в любую минуту. Из задумчивости Стратмора вывел звонок мобильного телефона, едва слышный в завывании сирен и свисте пара. Не останавливаясь, он отстегнул телефон от брючного ремня.

Если все сложится нормально, она скоро выяснит местонахождение Северной Дакоты, и Стратмор конфискует ключ. Тогда дело будет только за Дэвидом. Когда он найдет копию ключа, имевшуюся у Танкадо, оба экземпляра будут уничтожены, а маленькая бомба с часовым механизмом, заложенная Танкадо, - обезврежена и превратится во взрывное устройство без детонатора.

 Думала, кое-кто помоложе? - засмеялся Стратмор. - Да нет, сэр, - попыталась она сгладить неловкость.  - Не в этом дело… - Да в этом.

Через шестьдесят секунд у него над головой затрещал интерком.

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Laodamia G. 10.06.2021 at 18:51

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