File Name: encyclopedia of african american culture and history .zip
The world got along without race for the overwhelming majority of its history. The U.
African Americans , one of the largest of the many ethnic groups in the United States. African Americans are mainly of African ancestry, but many have non-Black ancestors as well. African Americans are largely the descendants of enslaved people who were brought from their African homelands by force to work in the New World.
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African Americans , one of the largest of the many ethnic groups in the United States. African Americans are mainly of African ancestry, but many have non-Black ancestors as well.
African Americans are largely the descendants of enslaved people who were brought from their African homelands by force to work in the New World. Their rights were severely limited, and they were long denied a rightful share in the economic, social, and political progress of the United States. Nevertheless, African Americans have made basic and lasting contributions to American history and culture. African Americans were also concentrated in the largest cities, with more than 2 million living in New York City and more than 1 million in Chicago.
Detroit , Philadelphia, and Houston each had a Black population between , and 1 million. As Americans of African descent reached each new plateau in their struggle for equality, they reevaluated their identity. The slaveholder labels of black and negro Spanish for black were offensive, so they chose the euphemism coloured when they were freed. Capitalized, Negro became acceptable during the migration to the North for factory jobs.
Afro-American was adopted by civil rights activists to underline pride in their ancestral homeland, but Black —the symbol of power and revolution—proved more popular. All these terms are still reflected in the names of dozens of organizations. In the 21st century the terms Black and African American both were widely used.
Africans assisted the Spanish and the Portuguese during their early exploration of the Americas. In the 16th century some Black explorers settled in the Mississippi valley and in the areas that became South Carolina and New Mexico.
The uninterrupted history of Blacks in the United States began in , when 20 Africans were landed in the English colony of Virginia. These individuals were not enslaved people but indentured servants—persons bound to an employer for a limited number of years—as were many of the settlers of European descent whites.
By the s large numbers of Africans were being brought to the English colonies. In Blacks numbered almost , and made up nearly one-fifth of the population of the United States. Attempts to hold Black servants beyond the normal term of indenture culminated in the legal establishment of Black chattel slavery in Virginia in and in all the English colonies by Black people were easily distinguished by their skin colour the result of evolutionary pressures favouring the presence in the skin of a dark pigment called melanin in populations in equatorial climates from the rest of the populace, making them highly visible targets for enslavement.
Enslaved Blacks were put to work clearing and cultivating the farmlands of the New World. Of an estimated 10 million Africans brought to the Americas by the trade of enslaved peoples, about , came to the territory of what is now the United States.
The overwhelming majority were taken from the area of western Africa stretching from present-day Senegal to Angola, where political and social organization as well as art, music, and dance were highly advanced. With the increasing profitability of slavery and the trade of enslaved peoples, some Africans themselves sold captives to the European traders.
The captured Africans were generally marched in chains to the coast and crowded into the holds of slave ships for the dreaded Middle Passage across the Atlantic Ocean , usually to the West Indies. Shock, disease, and suicide were responsible for the deaths of at least one-sixth during the crossing. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.
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The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western origin, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African , Native American , Asian , Pacific Island , and Latin American people and their cultures. It also has its own distinct social and cultural characteristics, such as dialect , music , arts , social habits , cuisine , and folklore. The United States is ethnically and racially diverse as a result of large-scale migration throughout its history, and through African-American slavery and emancipation. The varieties of English people, as opposed to the other peoples on the British Isles, were the overwhelming majority ethnic group in the 17th century population of the colonies in was , and were The English ethnic group contributed to the major cultural and social mindset and attitudes that evolved into the American character. Large non-English immigrant populations from the s to , such as the Germans , or more , Scotch Irish , , added enriched and modified the English cultural substrate, The Encyclopedia of Colonial and Revolutionary America, Ed. John Mack Faragher, , pp.
It is impossible to understand America without understanding the history of African Americans. In nearly seven hundred entries, the Encyclopedia of African American History, documents the full range of the African American experience during that period—from the arrival of the first slave ship to the death of Frederick Douglass—and shows how all aspects of American culture, history, and national identity have been profoundly influenced by the experience of African Americans. This landmark achievement, originally published in three volumes, is now available for the first time as an easily-searched, quick access e-book. The Encyclopedia covers an extraordinary range of subjects. All of the Encyclopedia 's entries are accessibly written and free of jargon and technical terms. Selective bibliographies and cross-references accompanying each article direct readers to related entries within the Encyclopedia and to primary sources and scholarly works beyond it. A chronology of major events and nearly black and white illustrations enhance the work's usefulness.
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and Film History, Music and Music History. We are actively seeking submissions for The Encyclopedia of African American Culture: From.
Вода из горячей постепенно превратилась в теплую и, наконец, холодную. Она уже собиралась вылезать, как вдруг ожил радиотелефон. Сьюзан быстро встала и, расплескивая воду, потянулась к трубке, лежавшей на краю раковины. - Дэвид.
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Он попытался вернуться назад, но совладать с мощным потоком было невозможно - все равно как плыть против сильного течения могучей реки. Беккер обернулся. Двери оказались прямо перед ним, словно приглашая его принять участие в празднестве, до которого ему не было никакого дела.
Туда и обратно, - пробормотал. Все складывалось совсем не так, как он рассчитывал. Теперь предстояло принять решение. Бросить все и ехать в аэропорт.
- Не думаю, что он знал, что имеет дело с вирусом. Я думаю, он был введен в заблуждение. Бринкерхофф молчал. Мидж Милкен явно чего-то не поняла.
Есть целые числа, но есть и подсчет в процентах.
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African-American culture refers to the contributions of African Americans to the culture of the United States , either as part of or distinct from mainstream American culture.