File Name: modernisation theory and development .zip
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.
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Nils Gilman is an intellectual historian, vice president for programs at the Berggruen Institute, and former associate chancellor at the University of California, Berkeley. History of Political Economy 1 December ; 50 S1 : — Modernization theory was among the most influential historical and policy paradigms to emerge in the United States during the s, but fell into steep academic disrepute from the s forward. Despite this loss of intellectual credibility, however, it has for fifty years continued to exercise a major influence on the developmental imaginary both in the United States and in many other countries. Sign In or Create an Account. Advanced Search. User Tools.
The events leading up to the Second World War and the war itself had a profound impact on political and economic structures. The main impact was the emergence of a bi-polar world order, with the rise of a communist power, the USSR, on the one side and the United States as leader of the liberal capitalist system on the other. The US had emerged from the war as the strongest economy, enjoying rapid growth and capital accumulation and saw itself as leader of the emerging monetary and economic system in the capitalist world. A major early objective of the US was to assist Europe's recovery and lay the foundations of a new economic and political order, while containing the spread of communism in Western Europe. It was felt that institutions were needed that were able to create functioning, liberal market economies and order the economic, social, and political development in a post-war world. Initially, these institutions were tasked with providing the loans, credits, and investment necessary for Europe's post-war reconstruction and preventing a backlash into depression.
A macro-theory with historical, economic and sociological inspiration, modernisation theory seeks to establish how different societies progress, which variables affect this progress, and the effects of societal progress on human communication. Furthermore, many theorists in the field have examined how modernisation processes, especially economic growth, relate to democratisation and democratic consolidation Huntington A recurring theme, therefore, in modernisation theory is the opinion that globalisation and international connectedness lead to a consensus that the most desirable systems for modernisation are liberal democratisation and Western models of capitalist development Johannessen 6. Liberal modernisation theorists see modernisation as a lengthy, irreversible, and complex evolutionary process that completely transforms a society. Rostow presented a definitive account of how countries evolve in order to become modern, claiming that there were five stages of development. This is achieved, according to most modernisation theorists, including Rostow, through the introduction of material forces such as capital and investment from the West, the acceptance of Western institutions such as the nuclear family and democratic establishments, and the export of manufactured goods to the West Rostow Modernisation theory can quite obviously be criticised from a neo-modernist or Marxist viewpoint as Western-centric.
PDF | On Jan 1, , Prateek Goorha published Modernization Theory | Find, read and cite all the gained from political and economic development theory.
This article examines the link between economic development and democracy. Drawing on modernization theory, it considers whether democracy is more likely to emerge in a country that modernizes economically. After discussing various criticisms against modernization theory, the article reviews statistical evidence to determine whether economic modernization gives rise to democracy. It argues that the correlation between economic development and democracy stems from the survival of democracy and that a poor authoritarian regime is not likely to turn into a democracy even if it receives economic assistance, either in the form of foreign aid or access to markets through trade. The article highlights the correlation between economic level and survival, rather than between economic growth and survival, noting that economic growth can be helpful only if it is sustained.
The following information is quoted from Jacobs, J. Retrieved March 26, Geographers often seek to categorize places using a scale of development, frequently dividing nations into the "developed" and "developing," "first world" and "third world," or "core" and "periphery. Since the beginning of the twentieth century, geographers and those involved with the vast field of Development Studies have sought to answer this question, and in the process, have come up with many different models to explain this phenomenon. One of the key thinkers in twentieth-century Development Studies was W.
Introduction to the Sociology of Development pp Cite as. We have seen in Chapter 2 that there is considerable inequality and poverty in the world today. The various policies of planned social change which are implemented today to alleviate such problems are rooted in general conceptions of socioeconomic change and development that can be traced back to the nineteenth century.
By the end of the Second World War many of the countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America had failed to develop and remained poor, despite exposure to capitalism.
Modernization theory is a description and explanation of the processes of transformation from traditional or underdeveloped societies to modern societies. In the words of one of the major proponents, "Historically, modernization is the process of change towards those types of social, economic, and political systems that have developed in Western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and have then spread to other European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American, Asian, and African continents" Eisenstadt , p. Modernization theory has been one of the major perspectives in the sociology of national development and underdevelopment since the s. Primary attention has focused on ways in which past and present premodern societies become modern i. In general, modernization theorists are concerned with economic growth within societies as indicated, for example, by measures of gross national product.