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The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request.

Why water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) are fundamental to early childhood development

The data used to support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon request. Access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene WASH facilities is a basic necessity for human livelihood, survival, and well-being. Adequate WASH facilities provision is a critical issue to most developing countries around the world including Nigeria. This study assessed the level of knowledge, behavior, and practices towards water, sanitation, and hygiene in Kaduna state, Nigeria, with a view to ensuring sustainable WASH facilities intervention in the region.

Data collection tools included spot check observation and questionnaire involving participants, selected from five local government areas LGAs : Chikun, Kajuru, Soba, Kachia, and Zango Kataf. From the results, major drinking water sources were surface waters Pit latrine toilets were the major Level of personal and environmental hygiene understanding was fairly good in all the local government areas, and Incidence of water related diseases is generally low in the area.

Despite the commendable findings in the study areas, communities are still at risk due to lack of safe water supply and poor practices of home treatment and excreta disposal. Access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene WASH facilities is considered a basic human necessity for survival and well-being [ 1 ], without these basic needs, the health conditions of millions of people especially children are at risk [ 2 ].

However, 2. WASH services are considered means of contacting and at the same time preventing diseases [ 5 ]. Children are one of the most vulnerable groups affected by lack of water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities [ 2 ]. In developing countries, the high mortality rate resulting from diarrheal among children under the age of five was majorly due to WASH challenges [ 2 , 5 ].

The provision of safe WASH facilities has been greatly influential on people's health status and livelihood; however, the availability of these facilities remains critical in Nigeria especially in the rural areas [ 8 — 12 ]; a large percentage of rural communities in Nigeria live without access to safe WASH facilities [ 13 ].

The situation has thus subjected the communities to the utilization of water from rivers, ponds, and streams for drinking and domestic activities [ 14 ] and to the practice of open defecation [ 15 ] which consequently has often led to deaths, illnesses, and spread of waterborne diseases [ 16 — 18 ].

The few improved water facilities from boreholes and wells with hand pumps available are largely insufficient; women and children mostly travel far distances to access water, which is energy and time consuming, thus affecting children's education and women's household and economic productivity [ 19 ]. On the other hand, hygiene facilities such as excreta disposal toilets have also been inadequate for usage at community households and public places such as schools [ 20 ], markets [ 21 ], and even hospitals [ 22 ], which left people with no alternative but to defecate openly and sometimes in and around water sources [ 23 ] with no use of soap or any cleaning agents for protection [ 24 ].

Moreover, toilet facilities available were poorly maintained and mostly shared among numerous people with no consideration of gender segregation and women integrity [ 21 ]. KAP regarding WASH are contributing factors to waterborne disease prevalence in communities; poor WASH knowledge leads to unhygienic practices and poor attitudes which pollute water and spread illness [ 27 , 28 ].

Such inadequate WASH knowledge leads to wrong perception of quality of water resulting in large dependence on surface waters for drinking [ 14 , 29 ], open defection practices being perceived normal and commonly practiced, minimal household water purification practices to prevent diseases [ 30 , 31 ], and poor water collection and storage behaviors contaminating water and causing illnesses [ 32 — 34 ]. Household and environmental hygiene also tend to be poor, and children stool is often overlooked and perceived harmless in sanitation programs, hence increasing the risk of disease transmission [ 35 — 37 ], all due to limited WASH understanding and poor attitudes and practices towards WASH.

Therefore, there is a need to provide hygiene education programs and increased awareness towards promoting good WASH practices and ensuring good public health in the communities. In Nigeria, it is expected that there is currently a dearth of data on the status of WASH; thus, it is increasingly becoming difficult to plan any meaningful WASH program to improve health and well-being. Therefore, this study aims at assessing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to WASH in 5 local government areas in Kaduna state, Nigeria, with a view to providing reliable and sufficient data for effective implementation of WASH programs and ensuring good public health.

The study objectives are to assess the demographic characteristics of the study areas relevant to the survey, the various water sources for drinking and domestic activities, home water treatment methods and practices, water collection and storage attitudes and practices, knowledge of quality drinking water, excreta disposal systems used and related perceptions, personal and environmental hygiene, and water related diseases relevant to the study.

Figure 1 shows the map of Kaduna state. It is located on the southern end of the high plains of Northern Nigeria. The state is situated between longitudes The major cities of Kaduna state are Kaduna town, Zaria, and Kafanchan. The state shares common borders with Zamfara, Katsina, and Kano to the north; Niger to the west; Nasarawa to the south; Bauchi and Plateau to the east; and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, to the southwest.

Kaduna state has an area of 46, square kilometers. The current projected population of Kaduna state based on the population census is estimated at 8,, Scientific steps were followed to ensure the technical appropriateness of the survey sample size and sampling procedure. The following formula was used to determine the sample size [ 38 ]:. The design effect was estimated at 2 because of the clustering in the target population, and the level of precision was set to 0.

The total population of Kaduna state was obtained from the official gazette of the Federal Republic of Nigeria for the population census and used as N.

A three-stage sampling procedure was adopted for selection of respondents. The proportion of the total population constituted by each LGA was computed. Sample sizes for each LGA were then proportionately allocated to the selected communities. The sample sizes allocated to each LGA were equally allocated to the selected communities. Table 1 shows the breakdown of sample sizes for the state and selected LGAs and communities.

The last stage was the random selection of street blocks as clusters based on the map of the selected community. Household heads or representatives were interviewed in selected clusters.

The study is a cross-sectional field survey involving the use of structured questionnaire and field observation. A total of questionnaires were administered and retrieved. The number was distributed across the LGAs as follows: Chikun: The study variables include sociodemographic characteristics, water sources, and KAP regarding household water treatment, water collection and storage systems, excreta disposal, and household and environmental hygiene. In order to support the questionnaire data, observational checklists were used to capture and ensure the practices of household compound cleanliness, excreta disposal, and storage systems.

Data collection was performed and supervised by 3 trained and experienced environmental and public public health professionals with assistant from various trained field staff members and researchers in Kaduna state. The survey was closely monitored for data quality assurance. Results of the surveys were entered into EpiData and analyzed. Table 2 shows the background characteristics of the survey respondents of which the majority About Some However, Hausa accounted for Christianity is the most common religion of the respondents Major occupations were farming As shown in Table 3 , across the 5 LGAs, sources of drinking water include surface waters Rain water harvesting was practiced by These communities also utilize surface waters to a great extent, During dry season, unprotected hand dug wells However, some still sought additional water from vendors.

The sources of water for other domestic purposes were as follows: surface waters The most common method was filtration through cloth Other methods mentioned were boiling There is frequency of household water treatment in all the LGAs as The facilities used for storing drinking water were mostly covered clay pots Open containers were also common among Plastic buckets with taps were used only in Kachia by Items used in fetching drinking water from the storage facility included cup with handle These items were common in all the LGAs studied.

These items were either kept on the storage container Cleaning of the storage facilities was done daily by Again, the frequency of cleaning varied widely across the LGAs.

When respondents were asked about the qualities of safe drinking water, there were responses such as visually clear These views were consistent among the LGAs. Handling and storage of household drinking water and knowledge of qualities of safe drinking water. The use of traditional pit latrine was a common practice in all the 5 LGAs as However, about Kachia and Kajuru had large number of traditional pit toilets. Improved pit toilets and VIP toilets were also found in Kachia In the households, People use these facilities because they are cheap Among those practicing open defecation, Those who were not willing to stop open defecation cited lack of money as being the reason.

In the communities, it was common for under-5 children to defecate around the house Defecation around the house is most common in Zango After children defecation, the feces were dropped into a toilet facility Dropping of children feces into toilet facility was generally a common practice across the LGAs as shown in Table 7. The information on how the respondents perceive a good toilet, the type of toilet, and preferred ownership is displayed in Table 8.

In terms of perception, the respondents were of the opinion that privacy Most Flush toilet The respondents used soap for washing clothes When asked about when is it important to wash hands, there was a consensus among the respondents from the LGAs that hands should be washed before meal After defecation, hand washing is practiced the most in Kachia

Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Policy

Jump to navigation. The main objective is to assess the effect of interventions to improve sanitation, hygiene, water quality and supply within low- and middle-income countries on child development. Media Contact us Community My Account. Main objective The main objective is to assess the effect of interventions to improve sanitation, hygiene, water quality and supply within low- and middle-income countries on child development. Secondary objectives The secondary objectives are to: analyse any measured effect of water, sanitation and hygiene WASH interventions on school or preschool enrolment and attendance; examine the feasibility of WASH interventions with regard to their implementation fidelity and participant compliance; evaluate the effect of WASH interventions on intermediary outcomes of environmental contamination, gastrointestinal diseases and reduction in the burden of water collection and water costs; and identify any adverse impact that WASH interventions may have for participants.

Download the PDF. In September , world leaders came together to commit their nations to a new global partnership to reduce extreme poverty. They set out a series of time-bound targets - with a deadline of - that have become known as the Millennium Development Goals:. Perhaps no set of interventions underpins the attainment of these Millennium Development Goals more critically than water, sanitation and hygiene. Water supply and sanitation targets were included in MDG 7, calling on the world to reduce by half the proportion of people without access to water and sanitation. However, the impact of water and sanitation is felt across many sectors, impacting several MDGs.

Opportunities for the Internet of Things in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Domain

Universal, affordable and sustainable access to WASH is a key public health issue within international development and is the focus of the first two targets of Sustainable Development Goal 6 SDG 6. Improving access to WASH services can improve health, life expectancy, student learning, gender equality , and other important issues of international development. WASH services have to be provided to household locations but also to schools, healthcare facilities, work places, markets, prisons, train stations, public locations etc.

Metrics details. Control of neglected tropical diseases NTDs requires multiple strategic approaches including water, sanitation and hygiene services WASH. The availability of water as well as good hygiene are important for the management of Buruli ulcer particularly in the area of wound care one of the main component of the treatment of BU lesions.

Innovative Technology in the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Sector

Skip to main content. Search form Search. Home hygiene pdf. Home hygiene pdf home hygiene pdf Teach your child to wear clean clothes every day. Last updated 11 December Regardless, visitors should physically distance from other residents and staff in the facility. All staff should have training on hand hygiene, it is best practice that this is provided on a regular basis, e.

In urban India, water, sanitation, and hygiene WASH practices are a significant public health concern because the urban resident has more adverse exposure to WASH practices and there is a severe crisis of demand and supply. This study aims to explore WASH conditions and their association with selected diseases in urban households in India. Logistic regression was carried out to examine the association of WASH conditions with selected diseases.

Coverage disparities between countries, regions and urban and rural populations. Page UNICEF WASH ANNUAL REPORT 2 have become evident.


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Children need WASH – water, sanitation and hygiene – to Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) is at the Handbook_final_signed_16_April_pdf.

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Framed by a social practice perspective, this article presents a theoretical, political, and practical rationale for implementing and expanding water, sanitation and hygiene education WASH in preschools throughout the world.

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The reduction of child stunting in the East African region remains slow, emphasizing the need to examine the contributions of less commonly studied determinants of linear growth faltering.