File Name: bone and ivory tools from submerged paleoindian sites in florida .zip
Article number: Author biography Plain-language and multi-lingual abstracts PDF version.
The southeastern United States has one of the richest records of early human settlement of any area of North America. This book provides the first state-by-state summary of Paleoindian and Early Archaic research from the region, together with an appraisal of models developed to interpret the data.
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Nunc sed leo odio. Browse Collections About Login Help. Advanced search. Print Send Add Share. Item Data. These first Floridians are known as Paleoindians, and their culture is largely defined by their lithic assemblage, which includes the well known Clovis point.
As the Pleistocene ice age came to a close glaciers melted, rivers experienced a drastic increase in water volume and the landmass of Florida began to shrink as the sea level in the Gulf of Mexico rose. This event likely submerged many early Paleoindian sites in coastal areas, and the only sites known now are usually found in river valleys. This research will examine the distribution of Paleoindian sites in the Apalachicola River Valley of northwest Florida in terms of environmental characteristics, namely distance to river and site elevation.
Using data from known sites and from four artifact collectors, this research will show that Paleoindian sites cluster along the Chipola River, the major tributary of the Apalachicola River, and will also argue that it is far more beneficial for archaeologists to work with artifact collectors and document their vast amounts of data than to shun them and deem their data questionable and their methods unethical.
Thesis: Thesis M. Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references. General Note: Document formatted into pages; contains pages. Statement of Responsibility: by William D. Postcard Information Format: Book. Document formatted into pages; contains pages. Thomas J. Pluckhahn, Ph. Robert H. Tykot, Ph. Tyler PAGE 2 Acknowledgements This study would not have been possible without the knowledge and assistance of Jeff Whitfield, Terry Mercer, Dan Brymer, and Calvin Foran, the collectors who were gracious and trusting enough to allow me to document their finds from the valley.
Thank you all for realizing the importance of your finds, and allowing me to share in your vast knowledge of the Apalachicola Valley. In addition, this research would have never been possible without the persistence, dedication, and knowledge of Dr. Nancy White, my major professor and mentor, and the committee members who edited and reviewed my thesis, Dr. Robert Tykot and Dr. Thomas Pluckhahn. Many thanks also go to Jeff DuVernay and the field school students of the archaeological field school who dealt with me endless running around the valley to document collections.
I hope your exposure to the welcoming collectors of this valley allows you to see the benefits and necessity of including local informants in archaeological research. Finally, my endless gratitude goes to Jolien Verdaasdonk and my family for their patience and support in my academic ventures.
The color gradient represents elevation change see Figure 1. The color gradient represents elevation change. The color gradient represents elevation change, and the dredging area on the lower Chattahoochee River includes both Paleoindian and Transitional artifacts. The color gradient represents elevation change, and the dredging area includes artifacts from both Paleoindian and Transitional periods. The color gradient of the map represents elevation.
The color gradient of the map represents elevation change. The color gradient of the map represents elevation change, and the dredging area includes artifacts from both periods.
PAGE 10 1 Chapter One: Introduction Since the findings at the Meadowcroft, Monte Verde, and Topper sites the debate within American archaeology about the peopling of the Americas has greatly intensified, with a focus on when people first arrived and what route they took. In fact, the debate amongst American archaeologists over which of these sites is the oldest and what sites have credible evidence for extremely early occupation will likely continue for some time Adovasio and Pedler ; Goodyear ; Gruhn The current belief is that people either traveled the west coast or ventured through the ice-free corridor of western North America sometime between 20, and 12, years ago Fagan Unfortunately, there has been less focus on what happened during those first few millennia when people are known to have been in the Americas.
The purpose of this research is to address this issue in the northwest region of Florida. The goals are to examine the Paleoindian distribution in the Apalachicola River Valley of northwest Florida, to demonstrate how Paleoindians centered on the smaller Chipola River in this region rather than the larger Apalachicola River, to evaluate the contributions of artifact collectors and their collections to the known data, and to create and test a Paleoindian site location probability model using known sites and collector data.
This research required no excavation, but was able to provide new insights into a region where Paleoindians and their site distributions are rarely studied and demonstrate the importance of keeping a PAGE 11 2 good working relationship between the public, artifact collectors, academia, and government officials.
The Apalachicola and the Chipola are the two major rivers in the central panhandle of Florida. The Apalachicola River is formed by the confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers beginning at the Florida-Georgia border in what is today known as Lake Seminole, a lake created in from the installation of locks on the Apalachicola just below the confluence.
It is joined by the Chipola River from the west, just north of the swampy delta region that encompasses the lower third of the Apalachicola river valley. As the river patterns changed in northwest Florida at the end of the Pleistocene, Paleoindian cultures that were present from 12, to 8, years ago gave way to Early Archaic cultures, present from 8, to 6, years ago, and population distribution changed as well Smith ; Steponaitis Large diagnostic Paleoindian spear points, such as Suwannee, Simpson, and Clovis, which were likely used to kill Pleistocene mega-fauna, became less prevalent and Early Archaic points that were smaller and more varied, such as Kirk, Dalton, and Bolen, became more frequent Bullen ; Smith Small groups of Paleoindians living in close proximity to rivers transitioned into Archaic populations that were more dispersed throughout the river valleys due to changes in landscapes and cultural adaptations, such as ceramics which appeared later in the Archaic.
PAGE 12 3 Figure 1: Florida coastline changes since the last ice age approximately 18, years ago based on data from Faught and Donoghue PAGE 13 4 Correspondingly, Paleoindian sites in northwest Florida are found near major rivers, while Early Archaic sites portray a more even distribution across the landscape. Figure 2 shows the six counties surrounding the Apalachicola River that comprise the study area for this research. Chapter 2 begins with an examination of the environment in northwest Florida at the close of the last Ice Age, followed by a review in Chapter 3 of known Paleoindian distributions in the Americas, the United States, the Southeast, and Florida, including an overview of Paleoindian lithic typologies, with a focus on those that are diagnostic to the Paleoindian time period from 12, to 8, years ago.
The Paleo-Aucilla studies are used for a comparative basis since the Aucilla River Valley is only two valleys east of the Apalachicola, and both were relatively heavily populated during the late Pleistocene. The environmental and Paleoindian chapters are followed by a general overview of the ethical considerations concerning artifact collectors and the use of their data, their diverse perceptions, their past PAGE 14 5 Figure 2: Study area of the six-county region comprising the Apalachicola River Valley.
PAGE 15 6 involvements with archaeology, the laws that pertain to their actions, and the contributions they have made to the science. The three chapters that follow examine the distribution of Paleoindian sites and artifacts.
Chapter 5 is composed of the preliminary statistical and geographic analyses that are used to demonstrate that Paleoindian and Early Archaic populations in northwest Florida were distributed differently around the Apalachicola and Chipola rivers.
These analyses show that Paleoindian sites were closer to the Chipola River while Early Archaic sites were either scattered throughout the valley or centered near the Apalachicola River. Chapter 6 examines the artifacts documented from artifact collectors in the valley, using geographic analysis and based on lithic typologies and the size distributions of the tools.
Artifact collectors possess a great amount of information for archaeologists, and this research will demonstrate how valuable their knowledge and property are to the profession. Four collectors were interviewed about their Paleoindian artifacts found in the Chipola and Apalachicola rivers.
Most of the artifacts in their collections come from recreational diving in the rivers or from working on boats that dredge the rivers. Their Paleoindian lithic tools were documented using photography and metric analysis. Chapter 7 will combine all data from existing sites with the data from the collectors, including the newly obtained metric data for each artifact, to further refine the known distribution of Paleoindians in northwest Florida and to create a useful probability map for where Paleoindian sites might be found in the future.
The site distribution is then analyzed by projectile point length and width and by time period of the lithic artifacts to examine possible patterns. The research concludes with remarks about the dearth of research and knowledge on Paleoindians in Florida. It includes comments on the important contributions that can be made by collectors, and the possible loss of knowledge occurring due to changes in the related laws.
The importance of this research lies in its ability to show that academics do not have a corner on knowledge, collectors are going to continue collecting artifacts regardless of laws, and information will be lost without good anthropologist-informant relationships.
While in the past there have been academic archaeologists that have tried to claim possession of knowledge, understanding, and interpretations, new generations of public archaeologists, similar to some of their predecessors, are attempting to increase public participation in the creation of their public heritage.
This work will demonstrate the important role that artifac t collectors can play in an area where relatively little professional archaeology has been performed, and the important insights that locals PAGE 17 8 can contribute.
The public should not fear prosecution for their curiosity in the history of the land where they grew up, and academics should not promote the hoarding of knowledge or its acquisition. The goal of this work was to do good research while also addressing a major issue in public archaeology, namely the ethical considerations wh en interacting with artifact collectors and documenting the data they hold. All of the dates of archaeological sites in this research are calibrated radiocarbon years before present e.
Dates of sites from sources that reported uncalibrated dates were calibrated using OxCal calibration software. Dates of climate change events reported in the environmental background chapter Chapter 2 are years before present e. PAGE 18 9 Chapter Two: Environment The environment of north Florida today is one of high heat and high humidity, with consistent wet and dry seasons and few occasions of temperatures below freezing.
The average temperature range falls between 12C in the winter and 27C in the summer Watts et al. The region is characterized by high alluvial forests consisting of pine Pinus , oak Quercus , beech Fagus , and cypress Taxodium trees, and the largest fauna include the Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridanus , the bobcat Felis rufus , the white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus , and the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis.
The habitat of the manatee Trichechus manatus also extends to this area of Florida, though only one has been spotted in the coastal regions of the valley personal communication with ANERR personnel and no others have been recorded here in recent history Alden et al. Conversely, the late Pleistocene environment was marked by cooler, dryer conditions that varied drastically as the Laurentide ice sheet of North America slowly melted at the end of the last Ice Age, releasing cold fresh water into the oceans at variable rates Clark et al.
The flora and fauna of this period were far more diverse than at present as environments changed with fluctuating meltwater flow down major rivers and rising sea levels. The goal of the chapter is to PAGE 19 10 demonstrate the fluctuating environmental conditions present at the time of the first Floridians, commonly referred to as Paleoindians, who inhabited the area as early as 12, B.
Dunbar All of the dates used in this chapter are reported in uncalibrated years before present.
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Submerged Paleoindian andArchaic Sites, Florida/Faught. Figure 1. boscidean ivory fore-shafts and possible cut marks on the remains of extinct fauna.
The site which was discovered in is located in 3. Excavating submerged prehistoric sites on the continental shelf around Florida, and in other regions, helps archaeologists gain insight about prehistoric settlement patterns and aids in the reconstruction of the prehistoric landscape. By recovering and analyzing prehistoric stone tools , terrestrial faunal remains, and terrestrial floral remains — such as, helps excavators infer that the site was not fully inundated throughout prehistory. In the late Pleistocene and early Holocene periods, much of the continental shelf around Florida was exposed and occupied by prehistoric people.
Some early maps called it the Ocilla River. Tributaries include the Little Aucilla and Wacissa Rivers. In Florida , the Aucilla River forms the eastern border of Jefferson County , separating it from Madison County on the northern part, and from Taylor County to the south.
Однако он не смог удержаться от вопроса: - Сколько же вы хотите за оба экземпляра. - Двадцать миллионов американских долларов. Почти столько же поставил Нуматака. - Двадцать миллионов? - повторил он с притворным ужасом. - Это уму непостижимо.
PDF | Abstract - Bone and ivory artifacts have been recovered from sites in North America that date to the end of the underwater, in springs and rivers of northern Florida. paleoindian site in the Aucilla River, North Florida.Donat P. 01.06.2021 at 18:05
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This article gives an inventory of North American Paleoindian osseous points and PDF download for North American Paleoindian Bi-Beveled Bone and Ivory James S. Bone and Ivory Tools from Submerged Sites in Florida, paper.